Marine Corps University Communications Style Guide
APPENDIX A: ANSWERS TO NOW YOU TRY IT! QUIZZES
Worksheet 8. Now you try it! Citation Basics
1. What types of claims should be cited? There may be more than one correct response.
a. Information that is borrowed word-for-word from another source. Correct! All language that is borrowed from another source must be cited AND placed in quotation marks.
b. Information that is paraphrased or summarized from another source. Correct! All paraphrased and summarized information must be cited.
c. Information that is not common knowledge. Correct! All information that is not considered common knowledge must be cited.
d. Any information you learned by reading another source. Incorrect! Information that is new to you or that you learned from reading a source can still be considered common knowledge and thus does not necessarily need to be cited.
2. Which of the following claims require a citation? There may be more than one correct response.
a. There are currently 471,990 active duty personnel in the U.S. Army. Yes, a citation is needed here because this claim presents an exact number rather than a rough estimate. It is possible that these numbers could vary a bit from source to source.
b. Then, from 10-36 to 10-32 seconds after the Big Bang, the temperature of the universe was low enough (1028 K) that the forces of electromagnetism and weak nuclear forces were able to separate as well, forming two distinct forces. Yes, a citation is needed here because this claim presents specialized knowledge.
c. The Big Bang hypothesis states that all of the current and past matter in the universe came into existence roughly 13.8 billion years ago. No citation is needed here. This information is relatively generic and should be considered common knowledge.
d. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in Ford’s Theatre in Washington, DC, as he sat watching a play. No citation is needed here. This is a historical fact (it cannot be contested) and would generally be considered common knowledge.
e. Most Americans prefer Pepsi to Coke. A citation is needed here. Without having conducted a poll or study of some sort, it is impossible to draw conclusions about Americans’ preferences; therefore, the source of the information needs to be cited.
f. The Army is the oldest military Service in the United States. No citation is needed here because this is a fact that cannot be contested.
3. True or false: anything you learned in high school should be considered common knowledge.
True. Incorrect! It is possible to have learned specialized knowledge in high school, and specialized knowledge requires a citation.
4. Which of the following are forms of plagiarism? There may be more than one correct answer.
a. Self-plagiarism. Correct. Turning in the same paper (or portions of that paper) for two different courses, or submitting the same paper (or portion of a paper) to two different publications without appropriate citation could be considered self-plagiarism.
b. Not placing borrowed words in quotation marks. Correct! Failing to place borrowed words in quotation marks is considered a form of plagiarism, even if those borrowed words are followed by a citation.
c. Failing to read and cite all available literature on your topic. Incorrect! While a good scholar will attempt to read the seminal works on a topic, it is not possible to consult every book or article.
d. Not citing quoted or paraphrased information. Correct. All quoted and paraphrased information should be cited to avoid plagiarism.
e. Using a dropped quote. Incorrect! While dropped quotes present a stylistic issue, they are not considered plagiarism as long as they are cited.
Worksheet 9. Now You Try It! Verb Tense Quiz Answer Key
1. As the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) sailed through the South China Sea, the commander receives a call for help from one of the Americans on the oil rig.
The verb receives is incorrect. It should match the past tense verb sailed, as the two verbs should be parallel in this sentence since both occur in the same time period.
Corrected version: As the Littoral Combat Ship sailed through the South China Sea, the commander received a call for help from one of the Americans on the rig.
2. Since 1948, Sri Lanka is independent from the British.
The verb is is used incorrectly, as Sri Lanka’s period of independence started in the past and continues into the present.
Corrected version: Since 1948, Sri Lanka has been independent from the British.
3. The Marine Corps capitalize on this concept by maintain the Marine Corps Center for Lessons Learned (MCCLL).
Marine Corps is a singular subject, so the verb should be capitalizes to provide correct subject/verb agreement. Maintain is also incorrect, as it should be in continuous verb tense (e.g., by maintaining).
Corrected version: The Marine Corps capitalizes on this concept by maintaining the Marine Corps Center for Lessons Learned.
Worksheet 10. Now You Try It! Commas Quiz Answer Key
1. This is a correct use of the serial comma. Global responsibilities drive the United States to maintain maritime power to protect its trade interests, ensure its access to natural resources, and support its treaty obligations.
2. This is incorrect. A comma is needed to separate the parallel adjectives. Corrected version: A challenge from a potential adversary would necessitate a robust, capable amphibious assault capability.
3. This is incorrect. A comma is needed to separate the two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction in between. Corrected version: Provision of equipment in peacetime for the contingency of war is beneficial in many ways, but it will be costly.
4. This is incorrect. A semicolon is needed to separate the two independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb in between. A comma follows the conjunctive adverb. Corrected version: Provision of equipment in peacetime for the contingency of war is beneficial in many ways,; however, it will be costly.
Worksheet 11. Now You Try It! Semicolons Quiz Answer Key
1. This is a correct use of the semicolon. A semicolon is used to separate two complete, related sentences. Students at the School of Advanced Warfighting arrive and begin classes in early July; Command and Staff College students arrive later in the summer.
2. This is incorrect. Neither the material preceding nor the material following the semicolon can stand alone as a complete thought; therefore, a semicolon is not needed.
Corrected version: Small wars are defined as; “operations undertaken under executive authority.”
3. This is incorrect. None of the series items contains internal punctuation, so commas would more appropriately separate the series items. Corrected version: It is safe to state that even humanitarian assistance; disaster relief; and peace support operations are covered by the term small wars.
4. This is a correct use of the semicolon, as it separates two independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb in between. Armies have become smaller, and in most cases fully professional; however, their weapons and equipment largely remain the same.
Worksheet 12. Now You Try It! Colons Quiz Answer Key
1. This is a correct use of the colon. A colon is used after an independent clause to call attention to a list. LCSC instructors provide the following services to Marine Corps University students: formal classes, writing workshops, and one-on-one writing sessions.
2. This is incorrect. A colon is not used to separate a preposition from its direct object.
Corrected version: U.S. Marines may be asked to PCS to: Okinawa, Japan; Camp Lejeune, North Carolina; and Quantico, Virginia.
3. This is a correct use of the colon, as a colon is used after the salutation in a formal letter. To Whom it May Concern: The Gray Research Center’s power has been fully restored as of 10 July 2016 at 0900.
Worksheet 13. Now You Try It! Question Marks Quiz Answer Key
1. When does the groundbreaking for the new academic building take place?
2. Has it been that long? Colonel Morris wondered.
3. The following items must be listed on the inventory: tablets, laptops, and monitors.
Worksheet 14. Now You Try It! Hyphens Quiz Answer Key
1. This is a correct use of the hyphen. A hyphen is used when a prefix is added to a proper noun. The MCWAR students looked to written records pre-Vietnam for their research.
2. This is a correct use of the hyphen. A hyphen is used when the modifier is a letter or a number. The man’s favorite weapon to shoot was an AK-47.
3. This is incorrect. A hyphen should not be used if a modifier follows the noun it modifies (e.g., well read or properly educated). Corrected version: The captain made sure the memo was well-written, as it would be distributed throughout the battalion.
Worksheet 15. Now You Try It! Dashes Quiz Answer Key
1. This is a correct use of the em dash. An em dash can be used to emphasize a series.
In his last week of school, the captain tried his best to stay focused on his priorities—preparing his family for the upcoming move, practicing for graduation, and getting his research paper published.
2. This is incorrect. Dashes are needed before and after parenthetical elements. Corrected version: Four Marines—Major Smith, Captain Swanson, SgtMaj Ruiz, and Cpl Kirk—all met for dinner with their spouses at the Potomac Point winery Saturday night.
3. This is a correct use of the em dash. An em dash can set off a parenthetical element. The upcoming storm—which was predicted to severely hinder visibility—delayed the flight several hours.
Worksheet 16. Now You Try It! Parentheses Quiz Answer Key
1. This is incorrect. In the case that an entire sentence is enclosed in parentheses, the closing punctuation mark should go inside the second parenthesis, not outside. Corrected version: All after action reports should be completed by this Tuesday. (The after action report will not be reviewed until next week.).
2. This is a correct use of parentheses. Parentheses enclose explanatory phrases that clarify the meaning of a sentence or passage without changing its message. My sister (who served in the Marine Corps for twenty years) is going to spend Thanksgiving in Detroit, Michigan this year.
3. This is incorrect. Brackets are preferred to enclose parenthetical information that is already in parentheses. Corrected version: (According to General Gray ([a former president of Marine Corps University]), “Every Marine is, first and foremost, a rifleman. All other conditions are secondary.”)
Worksheet 17. Now You Try It! Ellipses Quiz Answer Key
According to Huffman and Schultz, “As a consequence, the DADT repeal implementation has the potential to disrupt unit cohesion and affect the perception of combat readiness in the Corps . . . unless the Commandant initiates a cultural change establishing a Marine warrior concept that is inclusive of gender, race, age, religion, and sexual orientation.”
Note: this is just one example of how you might use ellipses to shorten a long quotation. There are other possible solutions.
Worksheet 18. Now You Try It! Apostrophes Quiz Answer Key
1. This is incorrect. You’re is a contraction abbreviating the words “you are.” Your is the correct possessive pronoun to use here. Corrected version: What did you’re your unit accomplish this quarter?
2. This is correct. These are plural, not possessive, so no apostrophe is needed. Corrected version: How many xs and ys are on the page?
3. This is correct. The CMOS recommends you add an apostrophe –s on the end of singular nouns ending in –s, -z, or –x. Corrected version: Degas’s paintings are beautiful.
Worksheet 19. Now You Try It! Capitalization Quiz Answer Key
1. Major Smith applied to George Mason University, as she wanted to pursue a master’s degree.
2. In May 1967, President Gamal Abdel Nasser began to close the Straits of Tiran.
Worksheet 20. Now You Try It! Prepositions Quiz Answer Key
1. The nuclear bomb that had been advertised by the Strategic Air Command (SAC) in/during WWII revealed inefficient to address the small war requirements of the Vietnam era.
Worksheet 21. Now You Try It! Article Use Quiz Answer Key
1. The president of the United States met with a group of CEOs to discuss American manufacturing issues.
2. I got you a room on the second floor of the hotel.
3. We need time to think about a solution to the/a problem posed in seminar yesterday.