Leadership Communication Skills Center


Marine Corps University Communications Style Guide

CHAPTER NINE: ENDNOTE AND BIBLIOGRAPHY FORMATS

While chapter 8 discussed strategies for integrating outside source material into your writing, this chapter covers the mechanics of The Chicago Manual of Style endnote and bibliography citation formats. Students are advised to consult chapter 8 to develop an understanding of basic citation practices before attempting to format CMOS endnote and bibliography entries.

In academic writing, footnotes, endnotes, and parenthetical documentation indicate the original sources of words or ideas you borrow from other authors. These forms of documentation are unique to the different style manual formats. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is used mainly in historical and military writing, while the Modern Language Association (MLA) style is used mainly in the disciplines of English and other related humanities. The American Psychological Association (APA) style is used largely in social science and business writing. The main differences you will find among the three citation styles reside in the use of in-text citations or notes, the references page, block quotation length, and page format.

The Chicago Manual of Style allows for two different methods of citation: notes-bibliography style and author-date style. The citation formats provided in this chapter follow CMOS notes-bibliography system, as MCWAR, SAW, and CSC schoolhouses all use the notes-bibliography method. However, the College of Enlisted Professional Military Education (CEME) follows CMOS’s author-date system, which uses parenthetical documentation as opposed to notes and a bibliography to cite sources. Below is an example of the differences between the author-date and notes-bibliography systems.

Author-date example: In First to Fight, Victor H. Krulak (1984) concludes by saying “the future of the Corps lies within itself” (227).

Author-date example without a signal phrase: It is important to remember that “the future of the Corps lies within itself” (Krulak 1984, 227).

Notes-bibliography example: In First to Fight, Victor H. Krulak concludes by saying “the future of the Corps lies within itself.”1

1 Victor H. Krulak, First to Fight (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984), 227.

Note that the citation does not include Krulak’s rank. According to CMOS, an author’s degrees and affiliations are not included in endnote or bibliography formats.

 

Students attending CEME’s continuing education program can visit the CMOS website to obtain accurate author-date citation formats. They may also contact the College of Distance Education and Training (CDET) Writing Center for author-date citation resources. Table 8 summarizes the key differences between MLA, APA, Chicago author-date style, and Chicago notes-bibliography style.

 

Table 8. Differences between CMOS, APA, and MLA citation styles

 

Field used

Source lists

Notes/citations

MLA

Humanities fields

Works cited

In-text parenthetical citations emphasizing author name

Example: In First to Fight, Victor Krulak concludes by saying “the future of the Corps lies within itself” (227).

Example without signal phrase: (Krulak, 227)

APA

Social sciences fields

References

In-text parenthetical citations emphasizing date published

Example: V. Krulak (1984) concludes First to Fight by saying “the future of the Corps lies within itself” (p. 227).

Example without signal phrase: (Krulak, 1984, p. 227)

CMOS notes-

bibliography

History fields

Bibliography

Material borrowed in text preceded with signal phrase and cited by a superscript note, which corresponds with citation at the end of the document or the foot of the page (e.g., endnote or footnote, respectively)

Example: Victor Krulak concludes First to Fight by saying “the future of the Corps lies within itself.”1

1 Victor H. Krulak, First to Fight (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984), 227.

CMOS

author-

date

History fields

Bibliography

Example: In First to Fight, Victor Krulak (1984) concludes by saying “the future of the Corps lies within itself” (227).

Example without signal phrase: It is important to remember that “the future of the Corps lies within itself” (Krulak 1984, 227).

 

The remainder of this chapter will provide you with CMOS endnote and bibliographic examples for a variety of sources you may include in your writing. Endnotes can be found at the end of the text preceding the bibliography; they are labeled with a superscript number in the text (e.g., 1), and this number matches up with a citation to show readers where the information was obtained (and where they can find those sources to further their knowledge of your topic). The bibliography is found at the very end of the document; it contains a list of references used in the research and writing of an academic paper or other document.

In most cases, you will find a note and bibliography format for each source. Some sources are not placed in the bibliography, so these formatting examples are omitted. Further, because the MCU Communications Style Guide attempts to present a condensed, user-friendly resource for CMOS citation guidelines, not all CMOS formats are included in this guide; in some cases, you may need to consult the original CMOS to find the correct format. In this chapter, you will find information on how to cite each type of source, including books; periodicals; book reviews; interviews and personal communications; student papers and other unpublished material; lectures, speeches, reports, and conference papers; encyclopedias and dictionaries; audiovisual materials; government and military documents; and digital sources.

Note: there are a number of programs available (e.g., Microsoft Word, BibMe, and Refworks) that writers may use to format notes and bibliography entries. While these programs will certainly help you to keep track of your sources, the source citations they generate may contain minor formatting errors. If you decide to use source citation software, it is recommended that you always double-check your citations against The MCU Communications Style Guide or The Chicago Manual of Style to ensure accuracy.

 

CSG 9.1 Books

To cite a book, include these basic components: the author’s name, the title/subtitle of the book, the place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the year of publication.

Generally, you do not need to include the day of publication in the citation, even if it appears on the copyright page. Only the publication year is needed. Some books may contain more than one publication date on the copyright page if there are earlier editions or versions of the text. If the book contains multiple publication dates, use only the most recent date of publication unless you are using a specific text in your research that may differ from another edition. When a printed work does not include a publication date, include the abbreviation n.d. (no date) in place of the publication date.

You may find some older texts and more recent self-published books do not include a publication location. If this is the case, include the abbreviation n.p. before the publisher’s name. At times, the name of the city should be followed by the state name if the city of publication “may be unknown to readers or may be confused with another city of the same name.” For instance, if the city of publication were Portland, you would want to specify which Portland you are referring to, as you could be referring to Portland, Maine, or Portland, Oregon. When writing the state name, use two letter postal codes (e.g., ME, OR). When referring to a major city (e.g., New York, San Diego), you do not need to follow the city name with the two-letter postal code, as it will be clear to your reader which city you are referring to. Occasionally, you will notice the copyright page includes more than one place of publication. If this is the case, only the first listed place of publication should be included in the citation. As you cite different types of books in your paper, you can reference table 9.

Basic bibliography entries are essentially three “sentences” separated by periods. Basic note entries are each a single “sentence” wherein information is separated by commas. Here are the templates for a basic book citation. Note: paragraph formatting and indents for bibliographic information and notes are not the same. Notes are formatted flush left and bibliographies use a hanging indent.

Bibliography

Last Name, First Name. Title: Subtitle. City, State: Publisher, year.

Note

First Name Last Name, Title: Subtitle (City, State: Publisher, year), page number.

Note: for both bibliographic entries and endnotes, if the name of the state is part of the name of the publisher (e.g., University of Nebraska Press) then it is not necessary to follow the city name with the state abbreviation.

Table 9. Sample bibliographic references and notes for books

9.1.1 Book with one author

In the bibliographic reference, the author’s name is inverted (i.e., last name is listed first). A comma separates the last name from the first name. In the note, however, the author’s name is not inverted; the first name precedes the last name. Another unique feature of the note (and not typically the bibliography) is it generally includes a page number, if one is available, particularly if the sentence includes a direct quote. In both the bibliographic reference and the note, book titles and subtitles (the part of the title following a colon) are italicized. The first word in the title, the first word in the subtitle, and any other major words should be capitalized. One space follows the colon. Note: if an author’s name is the same as the title (e.g., an autobiographical work), then the author’s name is not needed in the endnote.

Bibliography

Millet, Allan R. Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps, rev. ed. New York: Free Press, 1991.

Note

1 Allan R. Millet, Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps, rev. ed. (New York: Free Press, 1991), 26.

9.1.2 Book with two authors

When you include two or more authors in the bibliographic citation, only the first author’s name is inverted. A comma follows the first author’s complete name. Use the word “and” before the second author instead of an ampersand (&).

Bibliography

Sideman, Belle Becker, and Lillian Friedman. Europe Looks at the Civil War: An Anthology. New York: Orion Press, 1960.

Note

2 Belle Becker Sideman and Lillian Friedman, Europe Looks at the Civil War: An Anthology (New York: Orion Press, 1960), 21.

9.1.3 Book with three authors

When citing a book with three authors, only the first author’s name is inverted in the bibliography (the last name precedes the first name).

Bibliography

Erfurth, Waldemar, Stefan Possony, and Daniel Vilfroy. Surprise. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing, 1943.

Note

3 Waldemar Erfurth, Stefan Possony, and Daniel Vilfroy, Surprise (Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing, 1943), 18, 21–22.

9.1.4 Book with 4–10 authors

If a work has 4–10 authors or editors, include all names in the bibliography, but not in the note. In the note, cite only the first author followed by “et al.” (Latin for et alia, “and others”) in place of the remaining authors. A period follows only “al” and not “et.” If a work has more than 10 authors, cite only the first 7 authors in the bibliography followed by the phrase “et al.”

Bibliography

Suisman, Doug, Steven Simon, Glenn Robinson, C. Ross Anthony, and Michael Schoenbaum. The Arc: A Formal Structure for a Palestinian State. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2007.

Note

4 Doug Suisman et al., The Arc: A Formal Structure for a Palestinian State (Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2007), 16.

9.1.5 Book with a corporate author

When citing a book provided by an organization that does not have a personal author’s name on the title page, list the organization as the author in the bibliography and in the note.

Bibliography

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 17th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Note

5 University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017), 33.

9.1.6 Book with an editor

When there is no author listed on the title page, or when an editor is seen as more important than the author of the source, the editor’s name can be used instead. Use “ed.” to distinguish an editor from an author; this abbreviation is not needed in shortened note citations.

Bibliography

Gokay, Bulent, ed. The Politics of Oil: A Survey. London: Routledge, 2006.

Note

6 Bulent Gokay, ed., The Politics of Oil: A Survey (London: Routledge, 2006), 55.

9.1.7 Book with an author and editor

Normally, when a book has an author and an editor, the author’s name precedes the title, and the title precedes the editor’s name.

Bibliography

Bonnefoy, Yves. New and Selected Poems. Edited by John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Note

7 Yves Bonnefoy, New and Selected Poems, ed. John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 5.

 

That said, CMOS states, “when an editor or a translator is more important to a discussion than the original author, a book may be listed under the editor’s name.”

Bibliography

Naughton, John, and Anthony Rudolf, eds. New and Selected Poems. By Yves Bonnefoy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Note

8 John Naughton and Anthony Rudolf, eds., New and Selected Poems, by Yves Bonnefoy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995).

9.1.8 Book with an author and translator

Bibliography

Feydeau, Georges. Four Farces. Translated by Norman R. Shapiro. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Note

9 Georges Feydeau, Four Farces, trans. Norman R. Shapiro (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 27.

 

According to CMOS, “when an editor or a translator is more important to a discussion than the original author, a book may be listed under the editor’s name.”

Bibliography

Shapiro, Norman R., trans. Four Farces. By Georges Feydeau. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Note

10 Norman R. Shapiro, trans., Four Farces, by Georges Feydeau (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 27.

9.1.9 Book with an author, editor, and translator

In the note, the word “edited” is abbreviated to “ed.” Only use the singular form “ed.” if there is one editor. Use the abbreviation eds. if there are two or more editors. If there are four or more editors, cite the first one and add “et al.” When adding the name of a translator or translators, separate this information with a comma in the note.

Bibliography

Adorno, Theodor W., and Walter Benjamin. The Complete Correspondence, 1928–1940. Edited by Henri Lonitz. Translated by Nicholas Walker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Note

11 Theodor W. Adorno and Walter Benjamin, The Complete Correspondence, 1928–1940, ed. Henri Lonitz, trans. Nicholas Walker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 5.

9.1.10 Author known only by their given name

Bibliography

Augustine. On Christian Doctrine. Translated by D. W. Robertson Jr. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958.

Note

12 Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, trans. D. W. Robertson Jr. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958), 4.

9.1.11 Non-
English language source

According to CMOS, when works written in English cite sources written in a foreign language, bibliographic terms (e.g., volume, edition) may be translated if the author or editor is familiar with common bibliographic terms in the foreign language. However, CMOS recommends leaving the terms in their original language.

Bibliography

Bourdieu, Pierre. Raison Pratique: Sur la théorie de l’action. Paris: Seuil, 2014.

Note

13 Pierre Bourdieu, Raison Pratique: Sur la théorie de l’action (Paris: Seuil, 2014), 153.

9.1.12 Book with edition

The edition follows the title, and in the note it is preceded by a comma. If you are citing a revised version, you would abbreviate the phrase and place it after the title in the same way (e.g., rev. ed.). The word “revised” should be in lowercase.

Bibliography

Hacker, Diana, Nancy Sommers, Tom Jehn, Jane Rosenzweig, and Marcy Carbajal van Horn. A Writer’s Reference. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007.

Note

14 Diana Hacker et al., A Writer’s Reference, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007), 43.

9.1.13 Article in an edited book

In both the bibliographic reference and the note, the word “in” precedes the title of the book; however, in the bibliographic reference the first letter of the word is capitalized. Additionally, in the bibliography, page numbers are not necessary unless the source cited is part of a larger work. In those instances, the page numbers, section number, or chapter number precedes the publication information.

Bibliography

Bloom, Mia, and John Horgan. “Missing Their Mark: The IRA Proxy Bomb Campaign.” In Making Sense of Proxy Wars: States, Surrogates & the Use of Force. Edited by Michael A. Innes, 31–59. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2012.

Note

15 Mia Bloom and John Horgan, “Missing Their Mark: The IRA Proxy Bomb Campaign,” in Making Sense of Proxy Wars: States, Surrogates & the Use of Force, ed. Michael A. Innes (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2012), 34.

9.1.14 Chapter in a book

When you cite only a chapter from an author’s book, include the chapter title as well as the title of the book.

Bibliography

Zetter, Kim. “A New Fighting Domain.” In Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World’s First Digital Weapon, 205–26. New York: Crown, 2014.

Note

16 Kim Zetter, “A New Fighting Domain,” in Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World’s First Digital Weapon (New York: Crown, 2014), 205–26.

9.1.15 Book introduction, preface, afterword, or abstract

When citing a foreword or other piece of front matter in a book, the author of the foreword goes first, followed by the names of the authors or editors of the book.

Bibliography

Gardner, Donald R. Foreword to Applications in Operational Culture: Perspectives from the Field. Edited by Paula Holmes-Eber, Patrice M. Scanlon, and Andrea L. Hamlen, ix. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University Press, 2009.

Note

17 Donald R. Gardner, foreword to Applications in Operational Culture: Perspectives from the Field, ed. Paula Holmes-Eber, Patrice M. Scanlon, and Andrea L. Hamlen (Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University Press, 2009), ix.

9.1.16 Book with multiple volumes

CMOS stipulates, “When a multivolume work is cited as a whole, the total number of volumes is given after the title of the work.” If the book has an editor and an author, the volume should be placed after the editor’s name. The volume number should be in Arabic numerals even if it is given in Roman numerals in the original. Additionally, if a page number immediately follows the volume number, take out the abbreviation “vol.” and use a colon to separate the two numbers.

Bibliography

Asprey, Robert B. War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History. Vol. 2. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975.

Note

18 Robert B. Asprey, War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History, vol. 2 (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1975), 243.

9.1.17 Reprint

In a reprint edition, if the original information is important (e.g., original publication date) it can be included. Make sure to include the publication date of the edition you are using; this is especially important if the page numbers change as a result of the reprint. You can use this citation to show that a book is now declassified and/or now has a digital version with a phrase such as “now declassified and available online.”

Bibliography

Callwell, C. E. Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice. 3d ed. London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1906. Reprinted with introduction by Douglas Porch. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.

Note

19 C. E. Callwell, Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice, 3d ed. (London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1906), 13. Citations refer to the 1996 Nebraska edition.

9.1.18 Contribution to a multiauthor book

In the bibliographic reference, list the author of the contribution first. The title of the contribution, which is not italicized, and the ending punctuation are enclosed within quotation marks. The word “in,” which is not italicized, and the title of the book (italicized) follow the title of the contribution. In the bibliography and in the endnote, list the page numbers of the contribution after the last editor. In the endnote only, place the page used at the end.

Bibliography

Kanet, Roger E. “Limitations on the Soviet Union’s Role in Protracted Warfare in the Third World.” In Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency: U.S.-Soviet Policy in the Third World. Edited by Richard H. Schultz Jr., Robert L. Pfaltzgraff Jr., Uri Ra’anan, William J. Olsen, and Igor Lukes, 81–98. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989.

Note

20 Roger E. Kanet, “Limitations on the Soviet Union’s Role in Protracted Warfare in the Third World,” in Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency: U.S.-Soviet Policy in the Third World, eds. Richard H. Schultz Jr. et al., 81–98 (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1989), 96.

9.1.19 One volume of a multivolume work with different authors

The name of the volume follows the authors’ names. After listing the volume number, write the title of the entire work in italics.

Bibliography

Garand, George W., and Truman R. Strobridge. Western Pacific Operations. Vol. 4, History of U.S. Marine Operations in World War II. Washington, DC: Historical Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, 1971.

Note

21 George W. Garand and Truman R. Strobridge, Western Pacific Operations, vol. 4, History of U.S. Marine Operations in World War II (Washington, DC: Historical Division, Headquarters Marine Corps, 1971), 125.

9.1.20 Sacred or religious books

When citing a scriptural reference such as the Bible or the Koran (Qu’ran), it is important to name the version and/or translator. When shortening a citation in the endnotes, make sure to fully spell out the version you are using the first time you cite it. You do not need to include sacred or religious books in the bibliography. According to CMOS, “Any writer or editor working extensively with biblical material should consult the latest edition of The SBL Handbook of Style.”

Note

22 Romans 8:35–38 (Saint Joseph New Catholic edition).

23 The Holy Qu’ran 28:56 (English, Arabic, and Urdu edition).

24 Deuteronomy 24:19–21 (Jewish Publication Society Tanakh 1917 edition).

9.1.21 Publisher’s imprint

An imprint is a subdivision or brand of a publication company. In the example below, Longman is an imprint under the umbrella of the Pearson publication company. If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, it is usually sufficient to include the imprint’s name and to omit the name of the parent company. If it is unclear as to which name refers to the imprint and which refers to the parent company, both names may be included, and a slash would be placed between the two names (e.g., Pearson/Longman). In this case, we know that Longman is an imprint of Pearson, so only Longman is included in the citation.

Bibliography

Behrens, Laurence, and Leonard J. Rosen. A Sequence for Academic Writing. New York: Longman, 2010.

Note

25 Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen, A Sequence for Academic Writing (New York: Longman, 2010), 225.

9.1.22 Books available online

To show a book was found online, add the URL to the end of the citation. The pagination of online texts might vary from original printed versions. If you are working with an online text that does not include pagination, use a chapter or section title.

Bibliography

Steinbeck, John. Grapes of Wrath. Reprint of the 1917 New York edition, Project Gutenberg, 2014. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/46787-h/46787-h.htm. 

Note

26 John Steinbeck, Grapes of Wrath (1917; Project Gutenberg, 2014), chap. 3, https://www.gutenberg.org/files/46787-h/46787-h.htm.

9.1.23 E-books

Even if an e-book is available in print, it is best that you cite the book as an e-book if you access it online, as there may be differences between the versions. Phrases like “Kindle edition” and “PDF e-book” follow the year of publication. Many electronic books do not have fixed pages but rather scrollable text; thus, CMOS advises citing the chapter number section heading or even paragraph number if they are numbered in lieu of a page number.

Bibliography

Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984. Kindle edition.

Note

27 Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), Kindle edition, chap. 3.

9.1.24 Audiobook

Bibliography

Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. Read by Scott Brick. New York: Penguin Audio, 2004. Audiobook, 36 hr., 2 min.

Note

28 Ron Chernow, Alexander Hamilton, read by Scott Brick, 2004, audiobook, 10:13 min.

* For information about citing an online-only supplement to a book, see section 9.10.8.

 

CSG 9.2 Periodicals

Journals, popular magazines, and newspapers are classified as periodicals. The citation for the print version of a periodical is quite similar to the citation for the digital version; the main difference is that citations of nonprint sources typically include a URL or DOI. When citing journal, magazine, or newspaper articles, make sure you cite the specific source type you accessed. That is, if you consulted the source online, make sure you are following the format for an online journal article as opposed to treating it as a print version. Almost all journal articles will include a volume number; this number typically follows the title of the journal. Magazines and newspapers, however, will often include a specific month, season, or date of publication in lieu of a volume number.

Some journals will contain both a volume and issue number. The issue number typically follows the volume number and is preceded by the abbreviation “no.” Some journals will include both volume/issue numbers and specific seasons/months of publication. If the journal you are citing includes an issue number, the specific month and/or season of publication is unnecessary but not incorrect. For this reason, both of the citations below are correct:

Bibliography example including the issue number and month/season:

Spangler, Michael. “Preparing for North Korea’s Collapse: Key Stabilization Tasks.” Parameters 46, no. 2 (Summer 2016): 37–51.

Bibliography example omitting the month/season:

Spangler, Michael. “Preparing for North Korea’s Collapse: Key Stabilization Tasks.” Parameters 46, no. 2 (2016): 37–51.

 

When a particular month of publication is used, it may be either spelled out or abbreviated if the month is one that has an abbreviation (e.g., Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.). Seasons, however, are capitalized and written out in full (e.g., Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter).

When referring to a newspaper or other publication title in text, the title is italicized, but the word the preceding the title is made lowercase and not italicized. Exceptions are periodical titles like Forbes and TIME, which are not preceded by an article. As you cite different types of periodicals in your paper, you can reference table 10.

 

Table 10. Sample bibliography references and notes for periodicals

9.2.1 Journal articles in print

To cite a journal article, put the title of the article in quotation marks, followed by the title of the journal in italics. The volume number follows the title. There is no punctuation between the title and the volume number. Write the volume number as an Arabic numeral, even if it appears as a Roman numeral in the original text. If an issue number is given, place a comma after the volume number and the abbreviation “no.” before the issue number. It is not necessary to include a month or season if an issue number is given, but it is permissible.

Bibliography

Dowell, Steven C. “Policing in America: How DOD Helped Undermine Posse Comitatus.” Joint Force Quarterly 85, no. 2 (April 2017): 58–65.

Note

1 Steven Dowell, “Policing in America: How DOD Helped Undermine Posse Comitatus.” Joint Force Quarterly 85, no. 2 (April 2017): 60.

 

Note: generally, full names are not supplied when citing authors who always use initials in their publications.

Bibliography

Hammes, T. X. “The Emergence of 5th Generation Warfare.” Military Review 87, no. 3 (May–June 2007): 14–23.

Note

2 T. X. Hammes, “The Emergence of 5th Generation Warfare,” Military Review 87, no. 3 (May–June 2007): 15.

9.2.2 Journal articles from digital databases

Access dates are not required to cite sources published in digital databases. However, if directed to use an access date, place it after the page numbers and separate it with commas in a note or periods in a bibliography reference. The full URL is included only if the database has a recommended stable form of the document, such as a DOI. If a stable URL is not included, the citation should include the database name in addition to any identification number. Identification numbers should be placed in parentheses.

Bibliography

Bittner, Donald. “Foreign Military Officer Training in Reverse: U.S. Marine Corps Officers in the French Professional Military Education System in the Interwar Years.” Journal of Military History 57, no. 3 (July 1993): 481–510, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2943989.

Note

3 Donald Bittner, “Foreign Military Officer Training in Reverse: U.S. Marine Corps Officers in the French Professional Military Education System in the Interwar Years,” Journal of Military History 57, no. 3 (July 1993): 490, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2943989.

Bibliography

Sanassarian, Eliz, and Avi Davidi. “Domestic Tribulations and International Repercussions: The State and the Transformation of Non-Muslims in Iran.” Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 2007): 55–69. Ebscohost (25069433).

Note

4 Eliz Sanassarian and Avi Davidi, “Domestic Tribulations and International Repercussions: The State and the Transformation of Non-Muslims in Iran,” Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 2007): 55, Ebscohost (25069433).

9.2.3 Journal articles accessed online

While you may use digital databases to collect most of the journal articles you will cite in your work, you may locate and cite journal articles that are not housed in a database. For instance, you might use Google Scholar to locate free online journal articles.

Bibliography

Travis, Jon E., and Joyce A. Scott. “The Courage to Lead: Cases in American Higher Education.” Journal of Case Studies in Education 5 (2014). http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/131610.pdf. 

Note

5 Jon E. Travis and Joyce A. Scott, “The Courage to Lead: Cases in American Higher Education,” Journal of Case Studies in Education 5 (2014): 3, http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/131610.pdf.

9.2.4 Digital enhancements to journal articles

According to The Chicago Manual of Style (from where the below examples have been obtained), digital-only enhancements to journal articles—including sound or video files and appendixes—can be cited in notes as follows:

Note

6 “RNA/DNA Quantitation Methods,” appendix A (online only), Daniel I. Bolnick and On Lee Lau, “Predictable Patterns of Disruptive Selection in Stickleback in Postglacial Lakes,” American Naturalist 172, no. 1 (July 2008): 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1086/587805.

9.2.5 Foreign language journal articles

Usually, only the first letter of a foreign language article title is capitalized, unless there are other proper nouns in the title; however, capitalization is treated in accordance with the rules of the particular language.

Bibliography

Foucault, Michael. “Des espaces autres.” Architecture, Mouvement, Continuite, no. 5 (October 1984): 46–49.

Note

7 Michael Foucault, “Des espaces autres,” Architecture, Mouvement, Continuite, no. 5 (October 1984): 49.

9.2.6 Translated journal articles

When you translate a journal article title, the English translation follows the original title and appears in brackets with no quotation marks. If the citation uses only the English translation, the original language needs to follow the title in brackets.

Bibliography

Foucault, Michael. “Des espaces autres” [Of other spaces.] Translated by Jay Miskowiec. Diacritics 16, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 22–27.

Note

8 Michael Foucault, “Des espaces autres” [Of other spaces], trans. Jay Miskowiec, Diacritics 16, no. 1 (Spring 1986), 23.

Bibliography

Vygotsky, Lev. “Play and its role in the mental development of the child” [original in Russian.] Translated by Nikolai Veresov and Myra Barrs. International Research in Early Child Education 7, no. 2 (2016): 3–25.

Note

9 Lev Vygotsky, “Play and its role in the mental development of the child” [original in Russian], trans. Nikolai Veresov and Myra Barrs, International Research in Early Child Education 7, no. 2 (2016): 6.

9.2.7 Magazine articles in print

You do not need to include the volume or issue number for weekly or monthly magazines. If the magazine includes the specific day and month of publication, the full date may be included in the citation. However, many magazines include only a publication month. CMOS states that even magazines “numbered by volume and issue are usually cited by date only.” In addition, it is not necessary to include the page range for magazines in your bibliography because articles are often interrupted by advertisements and other extra pages. If page numbers are included, particularly in the endnote, separate the date and page numbers with a comma.

Bibliography

McGirk, Tim. “In the Shadow of 1967.” Time, June 11, 2007.

Note

10 Tim McGirk, “In the Shadow of 1967,” Time, June 11, 2007, 43.

9.2.8 Magazine articles from an online magazine

When citing an article from an online magazine, the URL typically follows the page number(s). If you are considering publishing your work, however, collaborate early with the publisher because many prefer that URLs be excluded from notes and bibliographies. Note that some online magazines do not contain page numbers.

Bibliography

Bamford, James. “Edward Snowden: The Untold Story.” Wired, August 2014. https://www.wired.com/2014/08/edward-snowden/

Note

11 James Bamford, “Edward Snowden: The Untold Story,” Wired, August 2014, https://www.wired.com/2014/08/edward-snowden/.

9.2.9

Newspaper articles in print

Because an article can be moved to different pages in different editions of a newspaper, it is not necessary to include page numbers in your citation. The month, day, and year are the most important elements. Additionally, you do not need to add the word “the” before the title of the newspaper. Newspaper articles are typically included only in the endnotes.

Note

12 Ernesto Londoño, “Before Pullout, A Scrap Project: Gear Disposal in Afghanistan,” Washington Post, June 20, 2013.

 

Newspaper articles are typically included only in the endnotes, but if a bibliography entry were needed it would follow this format:

Bibliography

Londono, Ernesto. “Before Pullout, A Scrap Project: Gear Disposal in Afghanistan.” Washington Post, June 20, 2013.

9.2.10

Unsigned newspaper articles

If citing an unsigned newspaper article, the note should begin with the article title (see generic format below):

Note

13 “Article Title,” Periodical Title, publication date.

 

As mentioned earlier, newspaper articles typically do not appear in the bibliography; however, if a bibliography entry were needed it would follow this format:

Bibliography

Periodical Title. “Article Title.” publication date.

9.2.11 Newspaper articles from digital databases

It is not necessary to include the date a newspaper article was accessed from a digital database. Simply ensure that readers know how to access the database. Additionally, if an author is not listed, you can use the name of the news service instead. Capitalize the title of the news service, but do not italicize it as you would the newspaper title.

Note

14 Associated Press, “Israelis Kill 11 Palestinians,” Richmond (VA) Times-
Dispatch
, June 28, 2007, http://library.pressdisplay.com/.

9.2.12 Newspaper articles accessed online and newspapers from a news site

Online newspapers and news sites such as CNN.com are treated as print newspaper sources with the addition of a URL. Place line breaks in the URL after a slash or before a tilde, period, underline, or hyphen, or before or after an equal sign or an ampersand. Do not add a hyphen to indicate a line beak in a URL. See previous comments on the use of URLs; this will depend on the publisher’s style.

Note

15 Hilary Whiteman, “Scenarios for Snowden: Escape, Arrest, Asylum,” CNN.com, June 20, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/20/world/asia/snowden-scenarios-hong-kong/index.html?hpt=hp_c4.

9.2.13

News releases

Note

16 U.S. Department of Labor, “US Department of Labor’s OSHA Cites Roofing Contractor Woodbridge Enterprises for Lack of Fall Protection at 2 Illinois Job Sites,” news release, June 5, 2012, http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&P_id=22470.

9.2.14 Resources from Jane’s Information Group

Janes—known as Jane’s Information Group or IHS Jane’s—is a British publishing company that produces several different types of publications on topics of interest to military writers. These publications include periodicals in online and print form as well as several specialized online resources. Authors are sometimes not listed in Janes resources; in this case, LCSC faculty members recommend that you begin your citation with the name of the publication in which the article is found.

Bibliography

Jane’s World Insurgency and Terrorism. “Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula,” February 25, 2014. Jane’s Information Group.

Note

17Jane’s World Insurgency and Terrorism, “Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula,” February 25, 2014, Jane’s Information Group.

 

CSG 9.3 Book Reviews

Another type of often-cited source is a book review. Table 11 contains an example of book review citations.

 

Table 11. Sample bibliography references and notes for book reviews

9.3.1 Book reviews

Bibliography

Drumming, Neil. Review of All Involved: A Novel, by Ryan Gattis. New York Times, June 19, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/21/books/review/all-involved-by-ryan-gattis.html?ref=review. 

Note

1 Neil Drumming, review of All Involved: A Novel, by Ryan Gattis, New York Times, June 19, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/21/books/review/all-involved-by-ryan-gattis.html?ref=review.

Bibliography

Keddie, Nikki R. Review of Nationalism in Iran, by Richard W. Cottam. Political Science Quarterly 40, no. 4 (December 1966), 665–66. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2146928.

Note

2 Nikki R. Keddie, review of Nationalism in Iran, by Richard W. Cottam, Political Science Quarterly 60, no. 4 (December 1966): 665, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2146928.

 

CSG 9.4 Interviews and Personal Communications

If you plan to include information that you obtained from an interview, via email with an individual, or through another form of personal communication, a citation is needed. In table 12, you will find examples of bibliography and endnote references for these types of sources.

 

Table 12. Sample bibliography references and notes for interviews and personal communications

9.4.1 Published or broadcast interviews

Unlike book and journal citations, where the author’s name goes first, in a citation of an interview, the name of the person being interviewed goes first, followed by the title and the name of the interviewer.

Bibliography

Bremmer, Ian. “An Interview with Ian Bremmer.” By David Doktori and Rebecca Leicht. Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 113–22.

Note

1 Ian Bremmer, “An Interview with Ian Bremmer,” interview by David Doktori and Rebecca Leicht, Journal of International Affairs 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 114.

9.4.2 Published or broadcast interviews retrieved from digital databases

When citing published or broadcast interviews from a digital database, the full URL is included only if the database has a recommended stable form of the document. If a stable URL is not included, the citation should include the database name in addition to any identification number. In the absence of an identification number, the database name is sufficient (see below).

Bibliography

Gallagher, Gary W. “Gettysburg Then and Now: A Civil War Times Interview.” By Peter S. Carmichael. Civil War Times Illustrated, July 2007, 20–27. Proquest.

Note

2 Gary W. Gallagher, “Gettysburg Then and Now: A Civil War Times Interview,” interview by Peter S. Carmichael, Civil War Times Illustrated, July 2007, 23, Proquest.

9.4.3 Published or broadcast interviews available online

See examples above for more information on the basic elements to include, as they are the same for this type of interview. Add the URL to show where readers can find the interview online. 

Bibliography

Nakasone, Paul M. “An Interview with Paul M. Nakasone.” By William T. Eliason. Joint Force Quarterly 92 (January 2019). https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/News-Article-View/Article/1734461/an-interview-with-paul-m-nakasone/. 

Note

3 Paul M. Nakasone, “An Interview with Paul M. Nakasone,” interview by William T. Eliason, Joint Forces Quarterly 92 (January 2019), https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Media/News/News-Article-View/Article/1734461/an-interview-with-paul-m-nakasone/.

9.4.4 Unpublished interviews

It is not necessary to include unpublished interviews and personal communications (phone conversations, emails, letters, and face-to-face interactions) in the bibliography; however, you must include them in an endnote. The note should include the names of the interviewer and the person being interviewed, the interviewee’s professional title or qualifications when appropriate, and the place and time of the interview. If a transcript or recording is available, the note should include where this information can be located. Make sure to get permission from the interviewee to cite their name in your paper.

Note

4 Miles Price (education specialist at iParadigms), discussion with author, May 3, 2019.

9.4.5 Unattributed (anonymous) interviews

There is a bit more flexibility given to the researcher when citing an interview with a person who chooses or is required to remain anonymous. Provide whatever material is appropriate given the particular context, and explain the reason for omitting the interviewee’s name. It is not necessary to include unattributed interviews in the bibliography.

Note

5 Interview with Senior Executive Service member, June 10, 2019.

9.4.6 Personal communications

At times, you may choose to reference informal face-to-face or telephone conversations. You may also cite emails or text messages. Below are some examples of how you might format notes to reference these personal communications; you should not include personal communications in the bibliography. If you are citing a letter or other personal communication that is housed in an archival collection, refer to 9.5.5.

Main text example: In a telephone conversation with the author on June 23, 2019, Director of the Leadership Communication Skills Center Linda Di Desidero stated . . .

Note

6 Linda Di Desidero, telephone conversation with the author, June 23, 2019.

Main text example: In an email message to the author on August 25, 2017, Marie Calendar provided the recipe for her chicken potpie.

Note

7 Marie Calendar, email message to author, August 25, 2017.

9.4.7 Email attachments

At times, personal communications may contain attached documents (Word documents, PowerPoint slides, or PDFs) that you need to cite. Below is an example of how you might cite information obtained through an email attachment.

Bibliography

Commandant’s Strategic Initiatives Group. “South China Sea Strategy 2017.” Unpublished manuscript received as email attachment from Col Audrey Lee. June 1, 2017. Microsoft Word file.

Note

8 Commandant’s Strategic Initiatives Group, unpublished manuscript received as email attachment from Col Audrey Lee, June 1, 2017, Microsoft Word file.

9.4.8

Electronic mailing lists and forums

The main components of digital mailing list citations are the name of the list, the date of the posting, and the URL associated with the posting. If the posting includes a title or file name/issue number, you should include that information as well. Do not include digital mailing list postings in the bibliography.

Note

9 Jason DePaulo to MCU@listserv.usmcu.edu, July 8, 2014, no. 22, http://mcu.studentforum/archives.php.

 

 

CSG 9.5 Student Theses and Other Unofficially Published Material

Another source type you might use in your writing is unpublished material such as previous student papers on a similar topic, including MMS papers published through the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). You may also want to cite an unpublished work or paper that you have written previously (e.g., citing yourself to avoid self-plagiarism). Table 13 presents example formats for citing unpublished and informally published material.

 

Table 13. Sample bibliography references and notes for unofficially published material

9.5.1 Student theses in print

When citing a student thesis, enclose the title of the thesis in quotation marks. Include the type of thesis, academic institution, and year.

Bibliography

Culbertson, Matthew C. “A Study of the Soviet Conflict in Afghanistan and its Implications.” Master’s thesis, Marine Corps University, 2005.

Note

1Matthew C. Culbertson, “A Study of the Soviet Conflict in Afghanistan and its Implications” (master’s thesis, Marine Corps University, 2005), 23–24.

9.5.2 Student theses retrieved from digital databases or websites

For this type of reference, it is necessary to include the URL of the digital database or website where the student thesis can be found. 

Bibliography

Amdemichael, Haile Araya. “East African Crisis Response: Shaping Ethiopian Peace Force for Better Participation in Future Peace Operations.” Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006. Defense Technical Information Center. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/. 

Note

2 Haile Araya Amdemichael, “East African Crisis Response: Shaping Ethiopian Peace Force for Better Participation in Future Peace Operations” (master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006), 51, Defense Technical Information Center, http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/.

9.5.3 Unpublished papers

When citing unpublished papers, include the author, the title, the words “unpublished manuscript,” the date you last consulted the source, and the format of the source (e.g., Microsoft Word file, PowerPoint presentation, etc.). For unpublished papers received as email attachments, see 9.4.7.

Bibliography

Lee, Audrey. “Thesis Drafting Strategies.” Unpublished manuscript, last modified June 1, 2012. Microsoft Word file.

Note

3 Audrey Lee, “Thesis Drafting Strategies” (unpublished manuscript, June 1, 2012), Microsoft Word file.

9.5.4 Working papers and drafts

Think of these types of sources in much the same way as theses or unpublished presentations; however, use the title “working paper” in place of “master’s thesis” or “unpublished manuscript.”

Bibliography

Cordesman, Anthony H. “One Year On: Nation Building in Iraq: A Status Report.” Working Paper. CSIS Press. Center for Strategic and International Studies, revised April 16, 2004. Also available online at: http://www.csis.org/. 

Note

4 Anthony H. Cordesman, “One Year On: Nation Building in Iraq: A Status Report,” rev. (working paper, CSIS Press, Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2004), 21, also available online at: http://www.csis.org/.

9.5.5 Archival information

Follow the format below when citing information that is housed in an archival collection. Some collections contain identifying series or file numbers, which should be included in the citation. Notice that the note format begins with the specific item (e.g., letter, memorandum, recording, or photograph) that is being cited. The bibliography format, however, begins with the collection that houses the specific item you are citing or the author(s) of the items in the collection.

Bibliography

Smedley D. Butler Collection. Marine Corps History Division Archives Branch, Quantico, VA.

Note

5 Specific item (e.g., letter, memorandum, recording, photograph), Collection Name, [Folder Heading], Collection Number, name and location of institution.

Note

6 General Butler, memorandum, 1913, Smedley D. Butler Collection [Folder heading], COLL 1202, Archives and Special Collections Branch, Marine Corps History Division Archives Branch, Quantico VA.

See 9.9.28 and 9.9.29 for examples of letters from an archived collection and archived reports.

 

 

CSG 9.6 Lectures, Speeches, Reports, and Papers Presented at Meetings

When citing a lecture or paper presented at a meeting, you need to include the title of the lecture or presentation as well as the organization hosting the meeting/lecture, the place where the meeting/lecture was held, and the date of the meeting/lecture. Keep in mind that lectures provided in Breckinridge or Warner Hall do not necessarily need to be cited due to Marine Corps University’s non-attribution policy. Consult with your faculty member for more specific guidance. Table 14 provides bibliography and note reference formats for these types of sources.

 

Table 14. Sample bibliography references and notes for lectures, speeches, reports, and papers presented at meetings

9.6.1 Lectures and speeches

Bibliography

Trump, Donald J. “Address before the Joint Session of Congress on the State of the Union.” Speech. United States Congress, Washington, DC, February 5, 2019.

Note

1 Donald J. Trump, “Address before the Joint Session of Congress on the State of the Union” (speech, United States Congress, Washington, DC, February 5, 2019).

9.6.2

Speech transcripts

Bibliography

King, Martin Luther Jr. “I Have a Dream.” Speech. Washington, DC, August 28, 1963. American Rhetoric. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm. 

Note

2 Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have a Dream” (speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963), American Rhetoric, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm.

9.6.3

Video recording of speech

Bibliography

Trump, Donald J. “State of the Union Address.” White House video, February 5, 2019. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sotu/. 

Note

3 Donald J. Trump, “State of the Union Address,” address to Congress and the nation, February 5, 2019, video, 42:20, https://www.whitehouse.gov/sotu/.

9.6.4 Published conference proceedings

Published proceedings of a conference or meeting are treated as book chapters.

Bibliography

Huntjens, Patrick. “A Legal and Institutional Perspective.” In Water Security and Peace Conference. Amsterdam: The Hague, November 2013, 20–37. http://www.upeace.nl/cp/uploads/downloadsprojecten/Water_and_Peace_Conference_-LR_-_Final_1405085225.pdf. 

Note

4 Patrick Huntjens, “A Legal and Institutional Perspective,” in Water Security and Peace Conference (Amsterdam: The Hague, November 2013), http://www.upeace.nl/cp/uploads/downloadsprojecten/Water_and_Peace_Conference_-LR_-_Final_1405085225.pdf.

9.6.5 Conference proceedings published in journals

Proceedings from a conference that are published in journals are treated as periodical articles.

Bibliography

Reid, Shelley. “Preparing Writing Teachers: A Case Study for CCCC and NCTE.” College Composition and Communication 62, no. 4 (June 2011): 687–703.

Note

5 Shelley Reid, “Preparing Writing Teachers: A Case Study for CCCC and NCTE,” College Composition and Communication 62, no. 4 (June 2011): 700.

9.6.6 Handouts

Handouts typically need to be included in the endnotes, but not in the bibliography unless otherwise instructed. Here is an example of how you would cite a course card or presentation. Note: for more information on citing PowerPoint slides, see section 9.8.3.

Notes

6 Lewis Miller, “Iraqi Culture and Politics” (course card, Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA, 2012), 2.

7 Jacob Lopez, MCPP (Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA, June 25, 2012), PowerPoint presentation.

9.6.7

Letters in a published collection

When citing a letter, put the name of the person who wrote the letter first, followed by the person to whom the letter was addressed, the year the letter was written, the place the letter was written (if applicable), and the name of the collection or book in which the letter was published. Section 9.5.5 provides formats for citing letters obtained from an archive.

Bibliography

Abigail Adams to John Adams, 1801. In My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams. Edited by Margaret A. Hogan and C. James Taylor. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001.

Note

8 Abigail Adams to John Adams, 1801, in My Dearest Friend: Letters of Abigail and John Adams, ed. Margaret A. Hogan and C. James Taylor (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2001), 15.

9.6.8

Archived manuscript collections

The citation for a letter in a collection begins with the name of the writer, followed by the word “to” and the name of the recipient. According to CMOS, “the word letter is usually omitted—that is, understood—but other forms of communication (telegram, memorandum) are specified.”

Bibliography

Grant, Ulysses S., and Robert E. Lee. Correspondence. Papers of the Lee Family. Archives of the Robert E. Lee Memorial Foundation. Jessie Ball duPont Memorial Library, Stratford Hall, VA.

Note

9 Ulysses S. Grant to Robert E. Lee, April 9, 1865, Archives of the Robert E. Lee Memorial Foundation, Papers of the Lee Family, Jessie Ball duPont Memorial Library, Stratford Hall, VA.

9.6.9 Pamphlets and reports

Pamphlets and reports are treated much as books are; however, it is acceptable to be a bit more flexible on author and publication information if these items do not fit the standard book citation format.

Bibliography

Sustainable Defense Task Force. Debt, Deficits, and Defense: A Way Forward. Washington, DC: Center for Defense Information, 2010.

Note

10Sustainable Defense Task Force, Debt, Deficits, and Defense: A Way Forward (Washington, DC: Center for Defense Information, 2010).

9.6.10 Think tank reports

A report in this sense is a document created by an organization (e.g., think tank, policy organization like the United Nations [UN], or a nongovernmental organization [NGO]). Citations are generally treated the same as a book.

Bibliography

Felbab-Brown, Vanda. The Hellish Road to Good Intentions: How to Break Political-Criminal Alliances in Contexts of Transition. Crime-Conflict Nexus Series, no. 7. Shibuya, Japan: Centre for Policy Research, United Nations University, 2017. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/the-hellish-road-to-good-intentions-how-to-break-political-criminal-alliances-in-contexts-of-transition.pdf. 

Note

11 Vanda Felbab-Brown, The Hellish Road to Good Intentions: How to Break Political-Criminal Alliances in Contexts of Transition, Crime-Conflict Nexus Series, no. 7 (Shibuya, Japan: Centre for Policy Research, United Nations University, 2017), 4, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/the-hellish-road-to-good-intentions-how-to-break-political-criminal-alliances-in-contexts-of-transition.pdf.

9.6.11 After action reports

Note

12 “Combined After Action Report” (CAAR), Operation Hickory, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment (ACR), S3 DIBI, 26 October 1966, 5-14213.

Bibliography

“Combined After Action Report” (CAAR). 11th ACR, Operation Hickory. S3 DIBI. 26 October 1966.

Note: after action reports that are not obtained from an archive may look quite different from the example above, especially with regard to the information that follows the report’s title. Depending on how you accessed an after action report, it might more closely follow the format for pamphlets and reports (see example below).

Note

13 Andrea Hamlen-Ridgely, MMS Pilot Program After Action Report, 1 August 2019–1 June 2020 (Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University, 2020), 3.

Bibliography

Hamlen-Ridgely, Andrea. MMS Pilot Program After Action Report. 1 August 2019–1 June 2020. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University, 2020.

 

 

CSG 9.7 Encyclopedias and Dictionaries

Encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference sources can be useful to cite when defining specific terms in your paper. Using sources like these can add credibility to the background section of your paper; be sure, however, that you are using a variety of different source types to support original arguments. Table 15 depicts example citations for reference materials.

 

Table 15. Sample bibliography references and notes for encyclopedias and dictionaries

9.7.1 Reference materials in print (encyclopedias and dictionaries)

It is not necessary to cite well-known reference sources, such as various editions of Webster dictionaries and Encyclopedia Britannica in the bibliography; however, they must be included in the endnotes. If the reference material is not well known, include it in the bibliography. It is not necessary to include the publication information, volume number, or page number. Instead, include the edition and the name of the article or entry after the abbreviated phrase “s.v.” This is Latin for sub voce, “under the word.”

Bibliography

Langer, Howard J. The Vietnam War: An Encyclopedia of Quotations. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005.

Note

1 Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., s.v. “history.”

9.7.2 Reference materials available online

Most dictionaries and encyclopedias found online are digital versions of well-known sources. As in the print version, well-known online dictionaries and encyclopedias do not have to be cited in the bibliography unless the entry is authored by a particular person. Additionally, if the publication does not contain a publication or revision date, add an access date.

Note

2 Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. “strategy,” accessed June 18, 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/568259/strategy.

 

 

CSG 9.8 Audiovisual Materials

DVDs, audio recordings, photographs, maps, charts, and even PowerPoint presentations can be useful sources to reference, but they must be cited in your paper. You can find examples of these types of citations in table 16.

 

Table 16. Sample bibliography references and notes for audiovisual materials

9.8.1 DVDs or videos

When citing a DVD or video, it is best to include as much information as you can regarding the title, director, year of production, place of production, and organization sponsoring the production. If you want to cite a particular scene from the DVD or video, put this information in quotation marks as you would the chapter of a book.

Bibliography

American Experience: The Battle of Chosin. Directed by Randall MacLowry. Arlington, VA: PBS, 2016. DVD, 120 min.

Note

1 American Experience: The Battle of Chosin, directed by Randall MacLowry (Arlington, VA: PBS, 2016), DVD.

9.8.2 Sound recordings

When citing a sound recording, include the performer, title, publisher/producer, year of production, and type of recording.

Bibliography

U.S. Marine Corps. Marching Cadences of the U.S. Marines. Documentary Recordings, 1998. Audio compact disc.

Note

2 U.S. Marine Corps, Marching Cadences of the U.S. Marines, performed by U.S. Marine Corps, Documentary Recordings, 1998, audio compact disc.

9.8.3 PowerPoint slides

Bibliography

Lopez, Jacob. Marine Corps Planning Process. PowerPoint presentation. Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA, June 25, 2012.

Note

3 Jacob Lopez, Marine Corps Planning Process (Marine Corps University, Quantico, VA, June 25, 2012), PowerPoint presentation.

9.8.4 Photographs

Images are generally only cited as notes and are not cited in the bibliography, though CMOS provides a bibliography format for images. A brief description of the image may be provided in place of a title if the image does not have a specific title. Provide as much information as possible regarding how the image was accessed. If the image was accessed online, make sure to provide the appropriate information for where the image is published (e.g., URL and page). If the image was found in a book, make sure to include the book title, page number, and image or figure number (if applicable).

Bibliography

O’Sullivan, Timothy H. “A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.” Paul J. Getty Museum Online Catalog. http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/58082/timothy-h-o'sullivan-print-by-alexander-gardner-a-harvest-of-death-american-negative-july-4-1863-print-1866/?dz=0.3275,0.6117,1.53.

Note

4 Timothy H. O’Sullivan, “A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania,” Paul J. Getty Museum Online Catalog, http://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/58082/timothy-h-o'sullivan-print-by-alexander-gardner-a-harvest-of-death-american-negative-july-4-1863-print-1866/?dz=0.3275,0.6117,1.53.

9.8.5 Maps

To cite a map from a book, journal article, or website, include the author’s name, title of the document, format, city of publication, publishing company, copyright date, and URL (if applicable). If the map and the publication in which the map appears are authored by two separate individuals or organizations, then you will need to first credit the individual who developed the map and then provide a citation for the source in which the map appears (see first example below).

Bibliography

Wall Street Journal. The Maritime Silk Road and Silk Road Economic Belt. Map. In Clemens, Morgan. The Maritime Silk Road and the PLA. Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2016. https://www.cna.org/cna_files/pdf/maritime-silk-road.pdf. 

Note

5 Wall Street Journal, The Maritime Silk Road and Silk Road Economic Belt, map, in Morgan Clemens, The Maritime Silk Road and the PLA (Arlington, VA: Center for Naval Analyses, 2016), https://www.cna.org/cna_files/pdf/maritime-silk-road.pdf. 

 

To cite a map from an archived collection, include the author’s name, title of the document, format, city of publication, publishing company, copyright date, source, and collection number/name.

Bibliography

United States Department of the Interior. Geological Survey. Topographic Map of the Island of Saipan. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Archives Branch, Marine Corps History Division, Map Collection.

Note

6 United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Topographic Map of the Island of Saipan. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, map (Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey, 1983), Archives Branch, Marine Corps History Division, Map Collection.

 

 

CSG 9.9 Government and Military Documents

Government and military documents are among some of the more common sources you will find yourself using at Marine Corps University. Although in professional military writing these are sometimes considered collective property and not necessary to cite, in academic writing it is necessary to cite these types of references so your readers know where to find the information should they plan on researching your topic further. Regarding legal sources, The Chicago Manual of Style states, “Legal publication use notes for documentation and few include bibliographies.” CMOS recommends using The Bluebook if working extensively with legal and public documents. Table 17 provides examples of bibliographic and endnote reference formats for a wide variety of government and military sources.

 

Table 17. Sample bibliography references and notes for government and military documents

9.9.1 Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports retrieved from digital databases

Bibliography

Kan, Shirley A. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues. CRS Report for Congress RL3155. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2007. http://search.ebscohost.com/.

Note

33 Shirley A. Kan, China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues, CRS Report for Congress RL3155 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2007), 5, http://search.ebscohost.com/.

9.9.2 CRS reports available online

Bibliography

Best, Richard A., Jr. Intelligence Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress RL33539. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2007.

Note

34 Richard A. Best Jr., Intelligence Issues for Congress, CRS Report for Congress RL33539 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2007), 6.

9.9.3 Government documents available online

When citing government documents accessed online, “online versions authenticated by a government entity or considered to be the official version (or an exact copy thereof) can be treated as if they were print.”

Bibliography

U.S. Government Accountability Office. Defense Contracting: Use of Undefinitized Contracts Understated and Definitization Time Frame often Not Met. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2007.

Note

2 Government Accountability Office, Defense Contracting: Use of Undefinitized Contracts Understated and Definitization Time Frame often Not Met (Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2007), 16.

9.9.4

Government documents available in digital databases

According to CMOS guidelines, “Citations of sources consulted through commercial databases such as Westlaw or LexisNexis should include the database name and any applicable identification number (or, in the case of constitutions and statutes, information about the currency of the database).”

Bibliography

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Indian Affairs. Combatting Terrorism. 108th Cong., 2003. Committee Print 37.

Note

1 Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, Combatting Terrorism, 108th Cong., 2003, Committee Print 37, 11.

9.9.5

Strategy documents

Bibliography

U.S. Department of Defense. Defense Manpower Requirements Report. Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, 2012.

Note

6 U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower Requirements Report (Washington, DC: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, 2012), 15.

Bibliography

White House. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. Washington, DC, 2006.

Note

7 White House, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (Washington, DC, 2006).

Bibliography

Mattis, James N. Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America: Sharpening the American Military’s Competitive Edge. Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2018.

Note

8 James N. Mattis, Summary of the 2018 National Defense Strategy of the United States of America: Sharpening the American Military’s Competitive Edge (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2018), 5.

9.9.6 Quadrennial Defense Report

Bibliography

U.S. Department of Defense. 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review. Washington, DC, Department of Defense, 2014.

Note

9 U.S. Department of Defense, 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, 2014).

9.9.7 Testimony and hearings

List and italicize the relevant committee as part of the title. Session numbers are not required for citations of House Reports “published as of 1907.”

Note

10 Thinkers and Practitioners: Do Senior Professional Military Education Schools Produce Strategists?:Hearing before the House Armed Services Subcommittee, 111th Cong. (2009) (statement of Rear Admiral James P. Wisecup, President, U.S. Naval War College), 10.

9.9.8 Congressional bills and resolutions

Known as public laws or statutes, bills and resolutions first appear in the Congressional Record, then in United States Statutes at Large, often in the United States Code Annotated, and finally in the United States Code.

Bibliography

U.S. Congress. House. Food Security Act of 1985. HR 2100. 99th Cong., Congressional Record 131, no. 132, daily ed. (October 8, 1985), H 8461-66.

Note

11 Food Security Act of 1985, HR 2100, 99th Cong., Congressional Record 131, no. 132, daily ed. (October 8, 1985), H 8461-66.

9.9.9 Committee prints

Bibliography

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Veterans’ Affairs. Report to the Committee on the Budget from the Committee on Veterans’ Affairs Submitted Pursuant to Section 301 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 on the Budget Proposed for Fiscal Year 2008. 110th Cong., 2007. Committee Print 2.

Note

12 House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Report to the Committee on the Budget from the Committee on Veterans’ Affairs Submitted Pursuant to Section 301 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 on the Budget Proposed for Fiscal Year 2008, 110th Cong., 2007, Committee Print 2, 15–16.

9.9.10 Commission reports

Bibliography

Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. Report to the President of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2005.

Note

13 Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction, Report to the President of the United States (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2005), 33.

9.9.11 Statutes

Note

14 Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 U.S.C. §§ 2011-2021, 2022-2286i, 2296a-2297h-13 (1954).

9.9.12 U.S. code

Note

15 Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201 (1949).

9.9.13 Supreme Court decisions

Cite court decisions only in notes, not in the bibliography. The Chicago Manual of Style advises you to include the name of the case, “the volume number (Arabic), abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable), the abbreviated name of the court (if not specified by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses, and other relevant information.” In addition, it states, “A single page number designates the opening page of a decision; the second number designates an actual page cited.”

Note

16 Brown v. Board of Education, 347 US 483, 380 (1954).

9.9.14
Constitutions

Cite constitutions only in notes, not in the bibliography. When citing a constitution, include the name of the constitution (an abbreviation of the jurisdiction and Const.) and the cited part (e.g., article, amendment, clause, section). Articles are abbreviated “art.” Amendments are abbreviated “amend.” Clauses are abbreviated “cl.”

Note

17 U.S. Const. art. II, § 2, cl. 2.

9.9.15 Treaties and international agreements

Bibliography

“Mastricht Treaty.” February 1, 1992. International Legal Materials 33, I.L.M. 395 (1994), 20–44.

Note

18 “Mastricht Treaty,” February 1, 1952, International Legal Materials 33, I.L.M. 395 (1994), 22.

9.9.16
Memoranda

Bibliography

James, Col Richard, Policy and Operations, Marine Corps University, to Col Joseph A. Wright, Policy and Operations. Memorandum, September 2011.

Note

19 Col Richard James, Policy and Operations, Marine Corps University, to Col Joseph A. Wright, Policy and Operations, memorandum, September 2, 2011.

9.9.17

Draft memoranda

Bibliography

Director of the Marine Corps Museum to Director of Command and Staff College. Draft memorandum, July 15, 2010.

Note

20 Director of the Marine Corps Museum to Director of Command and Staff College, draft memorandum, July 15, 2010.

9.9.18 Memoranda of understanding

Bibliography

Director of the Marine Corps Museum to Director of Command and Staff College. Memorandum of understanding, August 10, 2010.

Note

21 Director of the Marine Corps Museum to Director of Command and Staff College, memorandum of understanding, August 10, 2010.

9.9.19 Memoranda for record

Bibliography

Twining, Gen Nation F., vice chief of staff, U.S. Air Force. Memorandum for record, November 17, 1950.

Note

22 Gen Nathan F. Twining, vice chief of staff, U.S. Air Force, memorandum for record, November 17, 1950.

9.9.20 Letters and endorsements

Bibliography

Green, Col S. W., executive, Commandant’s Strategic Initiatives Group. Col S. W. Green to Commanding General, Marine Corps Training and Education Command, February 10, 2001.

Note

23 Col S. W. Green, executive, Commandant’s Strategic Initiatives Group, to Commanding General, Marine Corps Training and Education Command, February 10, 2001.

9.9.21 Doctrinal publications

Bibliography

U.S. Marine Corps. Warfighting. MCDP 1. Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 1991.

Note

24 U.S. Marine Corps, Warfighting, MCDP 1 (Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 1991), 52.

9.9.22 MSTP documents

Bibliography

MAGTF Staff Training Program (MSTP) Center. Marine Corps Design Methodology, Pamphlet 5-0.1 Quantico, VA: MSTP Center, 2017.

Note

25 MAGTF Staff Training Program (MSTP) Center, Marine Corps Design Methodology, Pamphlet 5-0.1 (Quantico, VA: MSTP Center, 2017), 4.

9.9.23 Directives

Bibliography

U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), Directive 2000.19E, February 14, 2006.

Note

26 U.S. Department of Defense, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), Directive 2000.19E, February 14, 2006, 2.

9.9.24 Instructions

Bibliography

U.S. Department of Defense. Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (JROTC) Program. DOD Instruction 1205.13, February 6, 2006.

Note

27 U.S. Department of Defense, Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (JROTC) Program, DOD Instruction 1205.13, February 6, 2006, 2.

9.9.25 Orders

Bibliography

Commandant of the Marine Corps. Marine Air-Ground Task Force Staff Training Program. MCO 1500.53A, August 20, 2002.

Note

28 Commandant of the Marine Corps, Marine Air-Ground Task Force Staff Training Program, MCO 1500.53A, August 20, 2002, 13.

9.9.26 Marine Corps bulletins

Bibliography

Commandant of the Marine Corps. Fiscal Year 2007 Individual Clothing Allowances. MCBul10120, October 1, 2006.

Note

29 Commandant of the Marine Corps, Fiscal Year 2007 Individual Clothing Allowances, MCBul10120, October 1, 2006.

9.9.27 Staff studies

Bibliography

U.S. Marine Corps. Marine Corps Provisioning: Policy Review, Staff Study. Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 1980.

Note

30 U.S. Marine Corps, Marine Corps Provisioning: Policy Review, Staff Study, (Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 1980), 2.

9.9.28 Correspondence

This example refers specifically to correspondence that is archived in a collection.

Bibliography

McCutcheon, Keith B. Papers, Archives Branch. Marine Corps History Division, Quantico, VA. Coll. 3040.

Note

31 Keith B. McCutcheon to Earl E. Anderson, September 27, 1971, Keith B. McCutcheon Papers, Archives, Marine Corps History Division, Box 1, Folder 12, Coll. 3040.

9.9.29 Archived reports

Bibliography

U.S. Marine Corps. Composition and Functions of Marine Aviation. Archives Branch, Marine Corps History Division. Coll. 3746.

Note

32 Composition and Functions of Marine Aviation, 1955, Headquarters, United States Marine Corps, Studies and Reports Collection, Archives Branch, Marine Corps History Division, Quantico, VA, Coll. 3746.

 

 

CSG 9.10 Digital Sources

While the term digital sources applies to a variety of source types, including e-books and online periodicals, this section focuses primarily on sources that are available only online (e.g., websites, blogs, and social media). Sections 9.1.22 and 9.1.23 in table 9 provide more information about citing books accessed online and e-books, while section 9.2 includes information about citing periodicals (e.g., journals, magazines, and newspapers) that are accessed online. According to CMOS, 17th edition, “Authors should note that anything posted on the internet is ‘published’ in the sense of copyright and must be treated as such for the purposes of complete citation and clearance of permissions, if relevant.” Digital sources available on the Internet should nearly always include a URL in addition to other source information elements like the author, title, and date of publication or access. According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, it is preferred to find a stable URL if available (e.g., a DOI or jstor link); however, bit.ly links and shortened versions of web links used by social media sites and third-party services should not be used in endnotes and bibliography references. Database information is preferred when citing information retrieved from an online database, as not all readers may have the same level of access to online databases.

In most cases, writers should be careful to cite the specific medium through which a source was accessed. For instance, citations for online journal articles should be followed by a stable jstor link or DOI to indicate to the reader that the source was consulted online as opposed to in print. Though unlikely, the print version may be slightly different from the online version of the text in terms of content, pagination, or other features.

In digital source citations, URLs should be presented as complete, and the "http" should not be capitalized. Further, if a URL is too long to fit on one line, it should only be broken "after a colon or a double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equals sign or an ampersand."116 Avoid adding hard returns or other formatting to break URLs, and do not add hyphens or dashes to indicate a break in the URL. 

Following is an example of a bibliography reference for a military document accessed online.

Bibliography example:

Commandant of the Marine Corps. Expeditionary Force 21. March 4, 2014.

 

The Chicago Manual of Style recommends including an access date only if the digital source does not include a publication or revision date. Page numbers may need to be included, if applicable. If you are citing a digital source that does not use page numbers, use a chapter title or section title instead. Below is an example of a section title used in place of a page number.

Note example:

1 University of Chicago, The Chicago Manual of Style Online, 17th ed. (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2017), sect. 14.18, https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/book/ed17/part3/ch14/psec018.html.

 

The citation format for websites is relatively flexible, as not all websites will include detailed publication information. You should be aware, however, that if you are unable to identify the author or sponsor of the site, the information the site contains may not be considered credible. Below are the basic components of website citations.

1. Title or a description of the page

2. Name of organization or individual who authored the content

3. Owner or sponsor of the site

4. Publication date or modification date; access date may be used in the absence of a publication or modification date

5. Site URL

 

Specific titles of blogs and websites should be put in italics if there is a print version of the work. If there is not a print version of the website (e.g., Wikipedia), the title should be capitalized headline-style and not put in quotation marks or italics. Blog titles are, however, italicized (e.g., War on the Rocks). The titles of the specific pages or parts of the larger sites should appear in quotation marks and are not italicized. Sometimes, the author’s name may not be listed directly on the page you consult. If this is the case, you may try visiting the site’s homepage to find out who published the information. However, websites will often have corporate or organizational authors (e.g., the CIA, the World Wildlife Foundation) rather than individual authors (e.g., John Smith). You may be able to locate the individual or corporate author’s name at the bottom of the web page.

Examples of websites and other digital source citation formats can be found in table 18.

 

Table 18. Sample bibliography references and notes for digital sources

9.10.1 Websites

Websites are cited in the notes section, but typically do not need to appear in the bibliography unless adding a bibliography in a paper with no endnotes or footnotes. Try to include as much information as possible: the site or page title, the author, the site or page sponsor/organization in charge, the date of publication/modification, an access date (date you found this resource) if no publication date can be found, and the URL. You can also add the word website in parentheses after the title of the web page if the type of source could be unclear to readers. For sources that are updated frequently, you can include a time stamp (e.g., 14:59).

Wikipedia and other websites that have never had a print version should be treated like general website titles and not italicized. This differs from online sources like The Chicago Manual of Style Online, which has a version in print and should thus be italicized (see third example below).

Notes

1 Mignon Fogarty, “How to Write Numbers,” Grammar Girl, last modified May 31, 2012, http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/how-to-write-numbers-0.

2 Marine Corps University, “Command and Staff College,” accessed June 6, 2017, https://www.usmcu.edu/csc.

3 The Chicago Manual of Style Online, 17th ed., sect. 14.117, https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html.

9.10.2 Blogs

If the word “blog” is not found in the title of the website, include the word “blog” after the blog title. Blog entries generally do not appear in the bibliography unless they are cited multiple times throughout the paper. Additionally, someone writing a blog may have a pseudonym or alias, so you do not need to make any special note of that; however, if you do know the name of the original author, you can put it in brackets or include the real name in the body of your paper. 

Note

4 William J. Tucker, “The Manchester Attack,” Blogs of War (blog), May 29, 2017, http://blogsofwar.com/the-manchester-attack/.

9.10.3 Comment on blog

If referencing a comment on a blog or other social media post in the text of your paper, the commenter’s name, date of comment, and information about the comment are necessary pieces of information to include.

Note

5 Scooby, May 14, 2018, comment on Rachel Rizzo and Gene Germanovich, “The US Should Embrace the EU’s New Defense-Cooperation Plan,” https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2018/05/us-should-embrace-eus-new-defense-cooperation-plan/148158#comment-3900017685.

9.10.4 Online multimedia (e.g., YouTube videos)

When citing online multimedia sources that are not a product of any particular publisher (e.g., YouTube videos), you may use the original capitalization, spelling, and spacing so readers can easily find the source. Online multimedia sources are not included in the bibliography.

Note

6 “President Trump Speech in Saudi Arabia at Arab Islamic-American Summit,” YouTube video, May 21, 2017, 34:45, https://youtu.be/LEnvulC3X-I.

9.10.5 Podcast

When citing a podcast or other audiovisual source type, list the type of medium being cited in addition to the other elements. In this case, use the phrase “podcast audio.”

Note

7 Jack Hopke, “Foreign Artists Visit Louisiana and the Times-Picayune Slowly Dissolves,” All Things New Orleans, NPR, podcast audio, June 14, 2012, http://npr.org/rss/podcast/podcast_detail.php?siteId=113308984.

9.10.6 Facebook and other social media sites

The prevalence of social media in society and the vast information sharing that occurs on these sites prior to more established news and print sources have made it necessary to include such resources in this citations chapter. These types of sources typically only need to be included in the endnotes, although according to CMOS, 17th edition, “A frequently cited account or an extensive thread related to a single subject or post may be included in a bibliography.” When citing social media content, include the author of the post, screen name of the author in parentheses, the first 160 characters of text in the post if no title is available, the type of post (e.g., Facebook video, Twitter post, Instagram photo), the date of the post,  a time stamp only if differentiating between different posts or comments on the same date, and a URL.

Note

8 John Dwayne Fucci, “Our nation owes a debt to its fallen heroes that we can never fully repay, but we can honor their sacrifice. Rest in peace mentor ‘semper fidelis’,” Facebook comment, May 29, 2019, 12:05, https://www.facebook.com/marines/.

9.10.7 Multimedia application content and video games

This source citation example can be used to cite “video games, interactive books and encyclopedias, and other content designed to function as a stand-alone application for use on a computer or other device.” Note citations should include the version number and information about the device or operating system used to run the application (app) or game. Below is a sample citation for the Marine Corps Marathon Historic Half app.

Note

9 Marine Corps Historic Half, iPhone ed., v. 1.2.12 (Xact, LLC, 2018).

9.10.8

Online only supplement to a book

10 Author first name last name, “title of online-only supplement to book” (file format, e.g., PDF), online supplement to chap. # of Book Title, ed.

 

 

CSG 9.11 Sample Bibliography

This chapter closes with a sample bibliography, which appears in the same format you will be expected to use in your papers at Marine Corps University. Typically, a CMOS bibliography is completely double spaced—though your professor may ask you to single space your bibliography entries with a double space in between entries. Both formats are acceptable in CMOS. Note that the sample bibliography provides models of different types of sources—books, journal articles, book chapters, a translated book, Marine Corps publications, digital sources, etc.—that you will be using in your own writing.

 

Sample Bibliography

Allison, Graham T. “Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis.” American Political Science Review 63, no. 3 (September 1969), 689–718, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1954423.

Allison, Graham T., and Philip Zelikow. Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. 2d ed. New York: Longman, 1999.

Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Galula, David. Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1964.

Guevara, Ernesto Che. Guerrilla Warfare: A Method. Peking, People’s Republic of China: Foreign Languages Press, 1964.

Kidder, Rushworth M. How Good People Make Tough Choices: Resolving the Dilemmas of Ethical Living. New York: Harper, 1995.

Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.

Krulak, Victor. First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

McFarland, Stephen L. “The Air Force in the Cold War, 1945–60: Birth of a New Defense Paradigm.” Airpower Journal 10, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 4–15.

Strachan, Hew. “Napoleonic Warfare.” In European Armies and the Conduct of War. London: Unwin Hyman, 1983, 39–58. https://doi.org
/10.4324/9780203995587.

Trinquier, Roger. Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency. New York: Praeger, 1964.

U.S. Marine Corps. Marine Corps Operating Concept (MOC). How an Expeditionary Force Operates in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 2016.

———. Warfighting. MCDP 1. Washington, DC: Headquarters Marine Corps, 1997.