MCU Journal, vol. 9, no. 1

Spring 2018

Training and Education in the Military


From the Editors




Educating an Enlisted Force That Can Win in the Future

SgtMaj Scott Hamm

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1



SgtMaj Hamm is the director of the Senior Enlisted Academy and the sergeant major for the College of Enlisted Military Education. He has served more than 25 years and is a graduate of many of the Enlisted PME schools and the United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College at Quantico.


How Senior Leader Education Supports the Warfighter

Rebecca Johnson

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1



Dr. Johnson is the dean and deputy director of the Marine Corps War College. The views expressed in this article are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy of any U.S. government organization.


Transformation Enhancement Program

Col Brian S. Christmas

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1



Col Brian S. Christmas is currently serving as operations officer for Training Command. He is an infantry officer who commanded 3d Battalion, 6th Marines, attended the Israel National Defense College, and served as a member of U.S. Africa Command.


The Education of the Enlightened Soldier

Bruce Gudmundsson

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1



Between 2007 and 2017, Bruce Gudmundsson held the Case Method Chair at Marine Corps University. He is currently writing a book about the history of the use of decision games in professional military education.


Informal and Incidental Learning in the Marine Corps

Rebecca Hannagan

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1



Dr. Rebecca Hannagan is a former Marine Corps University Foundation senior research fellow for leadership and ethics. She has published widely on group dynamics, decision making, and gendered attitudes and behavior. Hannagan currently supports Headquarters Marine Corps.



A Scientific or Regimental Staff: The Reform of Staff College

Selection in the British Army, 1927–31

Iain Farquharson

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: This article explores a key debate within the British Army of the power of the regimental system over the structure of the army. It will do so by focusing on the discussions undertaken between 1927 and 1931 on the issue of allocating vacancies to the two Staff Colleges at Camberley and Quetta. It will demonstrate that the regimental system of the British Army was so ingrained as to effect the reform of a structure that had stood outside the scope of regimental influence since its formalization in 1905. In doing so, it will be argued that the existence of the attitudes created by the regimental system in senior British officers had a significant impact on the British Army’s ability to recognize the need for the reform of Staff College entry process despite the increased importance and technicalization of staff duties as a result of the First World War.


Keywords: Staff College, British Army, education, interwar period, regimental system, Army Council


Iain Farquharson is a PhD student currently studying at Brunel University, London. His thesis looks at the development of British Army higher-education policy and the course of instruction at the Staff College, Camberley between 1919 and 1939.


Professionalism and Training of Army Officers in Britain 74

and the Habsburg Monarchy, 1740–90

2dLt Tobias Roeder, German Army

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: A majority of the army officers from Britain and the Habsburg Monarchy were committed full-time soldiers in the later part of the eighteenth century. For a large portion of the officer corps of infantry and cavalry, initial training was not centralized but conducted in their respective regiments. The special requirements of the technical branches meant new academies for them; the Habsburg Army also created a general military academy, providing a few dozen cadets each year. Although the Habsburg Monarchy followed a path of more proactive professionalization, creating a number of comprehensive regulations and closely monitoring officer discipline, the British public sphere was conducive to a wide discourse on military matters. In the Habsburg Army, military knowledge was considered arcane and confidential. However, in both armies, officers took an active part in improving the Service, including a more humane and empathetic understanding of discipline enforcement toward subordinates.


Keywords: officers, professionalization, British Army, Habsburg Army, military training, education, military academies, public sphere



2dLt Tobias Roeder has studied history at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg and the University of Cambridge. He has recently submitted his PhD dissertation at Clare College, University of Cambridge, on the “Professional Identity of Army Officers in Britain and the Habsburg Monarchy, 1740–1790.” His research focuses on various aspects of early modern military and political history. He also holds the rank of second lieutenant of the Reserve in the German Army.


The Cavalcade of Universal Military Training: Training and 97

Education within the Experimental Demonstration Unit

William A. Taylor

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: Beginning in 1943, U.S. military leaders and policy makers engaged in a sustained campaign to institute Universal Military Training (UMT) in America. This program envisioned that every 18-year-old male in the nation would undergo basic training, thereby creating a large pool of trained personnel to speed mobilization. In 1947, the U.S. Army launched a special unit at Fort Knox, Kentucky, to experiment with the training and education required for the program’s success and to demonstrate UMT’s necessity and desirability. This article explores the unique facets of training and education within this unit and considers their broader significance for the early Cold War period.


Keywords: Cold War, education, general Reserve, George C. Marshall, Harry S. Truman, John M. Devine, mobilization, training, Universal Military Training



Taylor is an associate professor of security studies at Angelo State University in San Angelo, TX. He won three national grants to research Every Citizen a Soldier: The Campaign for Universal Military Training after World War II (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2014), which won a Crader Family Book Prize Honorable Mention. Taylor won six national grants to research Military Service and American Democracy: From World War II to the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars (2016). His books are housed in more than 900 libraries throughout the United States and in 35 countries around the world. Taylor won the 2016 Angelo State University President’s Award for Faculty Excellence in Research/Creative Endeavor and the 2016 Texas Tech University System Chancellor’s Council Distinguished Research Award. He has contributed to 16 other books and has published more than 65 reference articles and book reviews.


The Evolution of Canada’s PME after Afghanistan: 120

From Counterinsurgency Back to High-Intensity Conflict

Craig Stone

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: Professional military education (PME) in Canada at the staff and war college levels needs to refocus its curriculum on high-intensity conflict. Unfortunately, unlike during the Cold War when the focus could be entirely on high-intensity conflict, today’s security environment requires Canada’s PME system to continue covering counterinsurgency operations as well. What is the correct balance and who should decide are some of the issues dealt with by the author. There are many interested parties, but the faculty actually involved in delivering the curriculum are arguably the best ones to decide how to achieve the balance. They have the knowledge and expertise in both curriculum design and delivery.


Keywords: professional military education, PME, Canada, War College, Command and Staff College, War College, high-intensity conflict, counterinsurgency, COIN



Craig Stone is a retired army officer with a PhD in war studies (defense economics) and has been at Canadian Forces College in uniform and as an academic since 1997. He was the director of academics from 2009 to 2015. Note that, for consistency, unless an official proper name, all spelling has been converted to follow U.S. English conventions.


On the Pedagogical Intent of Clausewitz’s On War 133

Timothy McCranor

MCUJ vo. 9, no. 1


Abstract: Jon Sumida provides a novel interpretation of On War that has implications for military education. Clausewitz, he argues, proposes a pedagogical theory of how to enhance the decision-making capacities of officers through an unconventional approach to the study of history. To support his case that On War is a theory of practice, Sumida demonstrates several affinities between Carl von Clausewitz and twentieth-century thinkers rather than late eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century ones. But there is also evidence that suggests that Clausewitz’s contemporary, Friedrich Schleiermacher, influenced the pedagogical intent of On War.


Keywords: Clausewitz, On War, officer education, professional military education, PME, pedagogy, Jon Sumida, historical reenactment, critical analysis, intuition, Azar Gat, Peter Paret, Friedrich Schleiermacher



Timothy McCranor is a PhD candidate in the political science department at Boston College. He earned his master’s in statecraft and national security affairs from the Institute of World Politics, Washington, DC. His research interests include the political philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Hannah Arendt, statecraft, the relationship between Islam and politics, and bioethics.



Behavioral Ethics: The Missing Piece of an Integrative 155

Approach to Military Ethics

David Todd and Paolo Tripodi

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: This article explores the expanding field of behavioral ethics, summarizing its findings under the gap between the perceived versus actual ethical selves, intuitive versus rational decision making, and the susceptibility to internal, organizational, and situational factors. Research into these influences indicates behavioral ethics should be integrated into the military ethical training and education endeavor and is most impactful when it is taught experientially.


Keywords: military ethics, behavioral ethics, ethical leadership, leadership development



David Todd is a U.S. Navy chaplain currently assigned to the Naval Leadership and Ethics Center, Newport, RI. The personal viewpoints expressed in this article are CDR Todd’s alone and are not the viewpoint of the Department of Defense, Department of the Navy, or the Navy Chaplain Corps. Paolo Tripodi is the ethics branch head and a professor of ethics and leadership at the Lejeune Leadership Institute, Marine Corps University.



Exploring Power Dynamics in Veterans’ Education Policy 171

Lesley McBain

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: The Post–9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (or Post–9/11 GI Bill) is the most complex and costly version of the GI Bill; notably, tuition and required fee payments are directed to higher education institutions rather than student veterans, as in previous iterations of the bill. This structure has created a new and complex set of power dynamics between higher education institutions, policy makers, and military/veteran-serving agencies. Understanding these dynamics as illustrated by legislative examples is important in bridging the civil-military gap in higher education.


Keywords: Post–9/11 GI Bill, veterans’ education policy, higher education policy, student veterans



Lesley McBain, PhD, is an independent scholar and director of research projects for the Council of Independent Colleges in Washington, DC. All opinions and content in this article are solely her own.


The Provision of Cyber Manpower: Creating a Virtual Reserve 191

Maj Gregg Curley

MCUJ vol. 9, no. 1


Abstract: Cyber manpower demands raise challenges similar to other high-demand specialties. This article looks at the viability of adapting the manpower model of the Public Health Service’s Reserve Commissioned Corps to the cyberdomain. A reserve paramilitary force could serve interchangeably across the military and interagency without law of war restrictions, would provide a lower-cost manpower option than full-time active duty, and could complement—not compete—with the civilian cybersector. Last, targeted training, education, and retention could shape this reserve force to meet emerging demands.


Keywords: cyber manpower, cyber and the military, history of cyber, military cyber reserve, public health service



Maj Gregg Curley is a judge advocate for the U.S. Marine Corps. He earned his master of military operational art and science in 2017, master of laws in 2015, juris doctor in 2008, and bachelor and master of business administration in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Curley is presently assigned as senior trial counsel, Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA. His previous assignments include defense attorney, civil affairs team leader, aide-de-camp, and special assistant U.S. attorney. Maj Curley has been published in the Marine Corps Gazette and the Army Lawyer.






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