Chronologies - 1994


___January – Marines from Camp Pendleton and Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, teamed up with reservists to aid earthquake victims of Southern California. They provided clean drinking water and aircraft support. 
___ January – Nearly four years after entering the Marine Corps' Officer Candidate School (OCS), Bruce I. Yamashita was given the honor he sought: a Marine Corps commission. Yamashita, A Honolulu lawyer, waged a private and public battle for the commission denied him because of racial discrimination at the OCS. He would be commissioned as a captain in a non-drilling Standby Reserve for four years.
1 January – The Marine Corps established the Marine Corps Recruiting Command (MCRC) at Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps in order to improve the Corps' organizational approach to recruiting. In doing so, the Personnel Procurement Division (Code MR) was disbanded. MCRC consists of the Eastern Recruiting Region headquartered at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island and the Western Recruiting Region at Marine Corps Recruiting Depot San Diego.
1 January – The strength of the U.S. Armed Forces was 1,675,269 of whom 176,613 were Marines.
11 January – John Bradley, the last survivor among the servicemen shown raising the U.S. flag on the island of Iwo Jima in one of the most famous combat 
photographs of World War II, died in Antigo, Wisconsin, at the age of 70. Bradley, who served in the Navy as a pharmacist mate second class, helped five Marines raise the flag on Mount Suribachi on 23 February 1945.
13 January – Outgoing Secretary of Defense Les Aspin approved a new policy governing the role of women in combat. His action effectively lifted the "risk rule" that barred women from non- combat units in close proximity to enemy units. This policy came on the heels of an earlier pronouncement last April that eliminated the ban on women in combat aviation billets.
24 January – President Clinton elevated the number two man at the Pentagon, Deputy Secretary of Defense William J. Perry as his new Secretary of Defense. Dr. Perry had been the Pentagon's deputy since March 1993 and would bring a wide range of government, academic, and defense industry experience to the position.
___February – The Marine Corps Toys for Tots Foundation, the chief fund-raising arm for the Marine Reserve's Christmas gift drive, was the target of a federal investigation into whether its former president diverted money from the nonprofit organization and engaged in other financial improprieties for his personal benefit. 
3-11 February – Marine astronaut, Colonel Charles Bolden, Jr. led the six-person crew of the year's first space shuttle. The flight was highlighted by the participation of a Russian astronaut serving as a crewmember. 
13 February – Robert L. Sherrod, noted combat correspondent, author and editor, died at his home in Washington, D.C. at the age of 85. Among his many publications, he is most remembered for his 1944 book, Tarawa: The Story of the Battle. At that time he was an associate editor of Time magazine and had covered various phases of the war in the Pacific. Mr. Sherrod had also been editor of The Saturday Evening Post.
17 February – Secretary of the Navy, John H. Dalton, announced the names to be given to five of the new Arleigh Burke class guided missile destroyers scheduled for construction. Two of the ships would be named after Marines: DDG 75 for Colonel Donald G. Cook, USMC, a prisoner of war in Vietnam who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, and DDG 76 for Colonel William R. Higgins who was kidnapped and killed by terrorists in Lebanon, 1988.
19 February – Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko of Japan, together with Americans, stood together and paid respects to their war dead on the 49th anniversary of the battle for Iwo Jima. Emperor Akihito was Japan's first emperor to visit the island.
19 February – Marine Barracks (MB), Annapolis, Maryland, retired its colors and was redesignated U.S. Naval Academy Company, MB Washington, D.C. MB Annapolis was a continuously active unit since 1851.
20 February – This date marked the deadline for Serbs and other warring factions in Sarajevo to remove their weapons or place them under United Nations control. Operation Deny Flight, a force of 4,000 from 12 NATO countries including VMFA-251 based in Aviano, Italy, supported the U.N.-mandated no-fly zone over the skies of Bosnia-Herzegovina. 
24 February – On this date, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, General Carl E. Mundy, appeared before the House Armed Services Committee for the third time. He told Congress that the Marine Corps, Congress' 911 Force, remains ready to answer the nation's calls and requested funds for equipment, repairs, and maintenance projects.
28 February – The "U.S. Marine Corps Implementation of DOD Homosexual Conduct/Administrative Separation Policy," outlined in ALMARS 64/94 and 65/94, took effect. The new policy continued to enforce separation procedures for homosexual conduct, however, a Marine's sexual orientation would be considered a "personal and private" matter and that alone would not be a bar to continued service.
___March – With no aircraft yet identified to replace the CH-46 and with possible procurement of the V-22 still years away, the Corps began a modernization effort to ensure that all CH-46s reach the 12,500-hour level, some 4,000 more hours of current flight time. It would require a Dynamic Component Upgrade Program that would replace the aircraft's rotor heads, drive systems, transmissions, and rotor control system over a five-year period.
3 March – The U.S. and South Korean governments canceled Exercise Team Spirit 94, an annual exercise that is the mainstay in readiness training for the defense of South Korea against an attack by the North. The cancellation is part of a package of agreements meant to end the standoff over North Korea's nuclear program.
8 March – The Department of Defense announced the implementation of a smoke-free workplace policy that would ban smoking of tobacco products in all work facilities worldwide. The new policy, signed by Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology John M. Deutch, would become effective on 8 April and would cover all uniformed personnel and civilians.
11-18 March – Marines participated in Exercise North Edge 94, a joint training exercise involving more that 14,600 military personnel. Held at Ft. Greely, Alaska, the exercise focused on peace enforcement and evacuation of American and foreign citizens as part of a simulated border dispute between two fictional countries.
13 March – General John Shalikashvili, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, visited sailors and Marines on board the USS Peleliu off the coast of Somalia as they redeployed. He expressed his gratitude for their service during Operation Restore Hope. Some 50 Marines from Marine Corps Security Force Battalion, Atlantic, would remain in Somalia after the U.S. forces withdrawal to provide security for U.S. diplomats who would continue to man a U.S. liaison office in Mogadishu. 
16 March – The parade deck at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, was dedicated in honor of the late Major General Oscar F. Peatross. General Robert H. Barrow was the guest speaker at the ceremony.
4-25 April – More than 500 Marines and sailors teamed up with the Kuwait Army and British Royal Marines for Exercise Native Fury 94 in Kuwait. The exercise was part of a 10-year defense pact between the United States and Kuwait. It was designed to demonstrate U.S. commitment to stability in the region while conducting maritime prepositioning force operations and combined training. 
11 April – Two F/A-18s from Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 251 attacked Bosnian Serb forces outside the town of Gorazde, Bosnia. The F/A-18s were part of NATO forces dedicated to supporting United Nations peacekeepers in Bosnia. The air strikes followed similar action by U.S. Air Force F-16s the previous day and were requested by U.N. forces inside Gorazde that had come under increasingly heavy Serb fire. 
12 April – Operation Distant Runner rescued Americans from Rwanda. Some 230 civilians, including 142 U.S. citizens, fleeing ethnic bloodshed in Rwanda, were evacuated to safety through the central African nation of Burundi by a contingency force of Marines from the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable).
15 April – The Marine Corps consolidated its installations in Hawaii under the single command, Marine Corps Base (MCB), Hawaii. Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron, Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe Bay consolidated with Camp H. M. Smith and other facilities to form MCB Hawaii. Unification would enable Marine facilities to operate more efficiently.
22 April – Former President Richard M. Nixon died at the age of 81 after a stroke. The remains of the nations' 37th President were transported from the East Coast to Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro, California, and he was buried at the Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda, California on 27 April. Marines from Battery R, 5th Battalion, 11th Marines rendered 21-gun salutes at the arrival and internment ceremonies. 
23 April – Admiral Frank B. Kelso II, the Navy's 24th Chief of Naval Operations, retired after 42 distinguished years of service. Admiral Jeremy M. Boorda was selected by President Clinton to replace Admiral Kelso. 
25 April - 11 May – More than 13,000 Marines from four major commands participated in Exercise Agile Provider 94, a joint and combined exercise spread out over six southern states and Puerto Rico. Sponsored by the U.S. Atlantic Command, the exercise was designed to train more than 44,000 soldiers, airmen, Marines, and Coast Guard personnel to operate jointly in command and control, forcible entry, air and ground operations, and maritime and special operations.
___ May – The Department of Veterans Affairs encouraged veterans of the Persian Gulf War, who were concerned about possible environmental exposures in the Gulf region, to take advantage of the VA's health monitoring program that included free comprehensive physical examinations and lab tests. 
1 May – The Marine Corps Reserve Center, Brookpark, Cleveland, was re-named the Colonel Justice M. Chambers U.S. Marine Corps Reserve Center to honor the Marine who was awarded the Medal of Honor on Iwo Jima when he commanded 3d Battalion, 25th Marines. The ceremony included remarks by Major General James E. Livingston, Commanding General, Marine Reserve Force, New Orleans, himself a Medal of Honor recipient. 
2 May - Sergeant Major Edgar R. Huff, one of the Marine Corps' first African-American sergeants major, died at the Camp Lejeune Naval Hospital at the age of 74. He enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1942. During his 30 years of Marine Corps service, he participated in World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. 
2-26 May – The 13th in its series, Exercise Cobra Gold 94 was held in Thailand. The exercise was designed to maintain regional peace through the U.S. strategy of cooperative engagement, and strengthen the ability of the Royal Thai armed forces to defend Thailand. The exercise included joint/combined land and air operations as well as combined naval/amphibious operations. Some 11,000 Thai troops and 13,000 U.S. personnel, including elements of Marine Forces Pacific, participated. 
12 May – Lewis B. Puller, Jr., Silver Star recipient for heroic actions in Vietnam, Pulitzer Prize winning author, and son of Lieutenant General Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller, died of an apparent self-inflicted gun-shot at his home in Fairfax County, Virginia. Puller suffered catastrophic injuries in 1968 while serving as a platoon commander in Vietnam. In 1991, he told the story of his ordeal in his winning novel Fortunate Son.
23 May – The Reserve Marine Air-Ground Task Force Command Element, Pacific activated. The unit was created as a result of a long-term planning process involving the realignment and organizational changes within the Marine Corps. It was commanded by Brigadier General John W. Hill, USMCR.
___June – The final Marine Corps "Tailhook" case was closed by Lieutenant General Charles C. Krulak, Commanding General of Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia, who had consolidated disposition authority for all Marine Corps cases arising from the 1991 Tailhook Association convention. There was a total of 22 cases reviewed by General Krulak.
1 June – Major General Carol A. Mutter pinned on her second star making her the first female major general in Marine Corps history. General Mutter assumed command of Marine Corps Systems Command, Quantico, Virginia on 3 June.
4 June - 13 August – Marine Reserve Force conducted Exercise Pinnacle Advance, the largest peacetime training exercise in the Marine Corps Reserve's 78-year history. The exercise involved 16,000 Marines and took place at sites in Southern California, Nevada, and Arizona. It included humanitarian assistance, peace keeping, combat, and amphibious operations.
15-23 June – The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps combined with the Russian navy and naval infantry to conduct an historic joint/combined exercise. USS Dubuque (LPD-8), based out of Sasebo, Japan, and Detachment One, 3d Marine Division from Okinawa, Japan, participated in Exercise Cooperation From the Sea at Vladivostok, Russia. It was designed to advance military-to-military cooperation in a disaster relief scenario. 
___July – Marines and civilian employees of Marine Corps Logistics Base, Albany, Georgia, assisted the people of flood-damaged southwest Georgia, particularly the Albany area where record floods wreaked havoc and rescues were conducted daily. About 20,000 Albany residents were evacuated from their homes as a result of Tropical Storm Alberto. 
1 July – The U.S. Senate and House budget negotiators agreed on an amendment to the 1995 defense authorization bill that called for a transfer of 84 M1A1 Abrams tanks from the Army to the Marine Corps.
15 July – General Richard D. Hearney was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the 25th Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. He would succeed General Walter E. Boomer, who would retire on 1 September, after more than 33 years of active duty service.
21 July – On Guam, the National Park Service unveiled a memorial wall honoring the casualties of the fighting there during World War II. The ceremony also honored more than 1,000 American veterans visiting the island as Guam celebrated 50 years of liberation from the Japanese. General Carl E. Mundy, Commandant of the Marine Corps, attended as well as retired General Louis H. Wilson, Jr., former Commandant of the Marine Corps, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism on Guam in 1944. Additionally, a War Dog Cemetery was dedicated on Guam with a granite monument of a life-sized Doberman sculpture in bronze.
21 July – The 9th Marines deactivated for the fourth time in its 77-year history. Originally formed on 17 November 1917 at Quantico, Virginia, the regiment participated in World War II and the Vietnam War. 
22 July – Leadership of the largest Marine field command passed during a change of command and retirement ceremony at Marine Corps Base, Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay. Lieutenant General Henry C. Stackpole III relinquished command of Marine Forces Pacific to Lieutenant General Charles C. Krulak. General Stackpole retired after 36 years of active duty service. General Krulak took the helm of Pacific Marine forces 30 years after his father, retired Lieutenant General Victor H. Krulak, assumed that same command.
28 July – Secretary of Defense William Perry approved recommendations made by the service chiefs to expand career opportunities for military women, a move that would almost double the number of occupational opportunities available to women in the Marine Corps. Women Marines would be eligible to serve in 93 percent of all occupational specialties, an additional 48,000 new positions, effective on 1 October.
29 July – After more than 90 years of providing security for Hawaii naval installations, Marine Barracks, Pearl Harbor deactivated. Its remaining forces were redesignated Marine Corps Security Force Company, Pearl Harbor. 
31 July – The first contingent of 1,200 Marines arrived in Washington state to join fire fighters in combating blazes across the eastern Cascade Range in 
central Washington. Marines from the 5th and 11th Marines stationed at Camp Pendleton, California, marked the seventh summer in a decade that the military was called upon to assist firefighting efforts. The fire in Washington was one of 26 blazes ranging over eight western states. 
___August – Marine Corps Air Station, El Toro began taking steps toward closing down. By the end of the summer, 1,500 Marines, about a quarter of the present military population of the base, would be transferred to Miramar Naval Air Station. El Toro, as well as Tustin Marine Corps Air Station, will be closed by the end of 1999.
5-26 August – Exercise Agile Sword 94, a Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Command sponsored maritime prepositioned force (MPF) exercise, was conducted at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The exercise was designed to train Navy and Marine Corps commands and personnel in the planning, coordination, and execution of MPF deployment, employment, and regeneration operations. 
10-12 August – The History and Museums Division was a co-sponsor of the World War II in the Pacific Conference held in Crystal City, Virginia. The conference program included academic papers, remembrances of war veterans, book exhibits, slide and film presentations, and displays. 
13 August – The city of Centron, France held a commemoration ceremony in honor of Lieutenant Colonel Peter J. Ortiz, USMC (Deceased) who assisted the French resistance in World War II. A plaque naming the town center "Place Colonel Peter Ortiz" was unveiled. The ceremony was attended by the late Colonel's wife, Jean, and their son, Marine Lieutenant Colonel Peter J. Ortiz, Jr. 
15 August – Lieutenant General Frederick L. Wieseman, USMC, former Commandant of Marine Corps Schools, died in Annapolis, Maryland, of a heart ailment at the age of 86. A graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy, General Wieseman served more than 35 years in the Marine Corps.
19 August – Secretary of the Navy, John H. Dalton, approved the name change of the Navy Commendation Medal and the Navy Achievement Medal. The 
medals were renamed as Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal, and Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal. Both new medals and their accompanying certificates and citations would be available by 1 October 1994.
19 August – More than 500 Pacific-based Marines and sailors deployed to the Republic of Korea to participate in Exercise Ulchi Focus Lens 94. The purpose of the month-long exercise was to improve plans for the defense of the Republic of Korea. The exercise provided the yearly opportunity to form and train the Combined Marine Forces Command Staffs, a United Nations command component established in 1992. 
___September – Women Marines from the 4th Recruit Training Battalion at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, South Carolina, were screened for candidates to fill highly visible presidential support duty and ceremonial positions at Marine Barracks, 8th and I Streets, Washington, D.C. The desire for increased presence of women Marines in ceremonial details was a direct result of the Corps' commitment to provide more opportunities for women to serve in the same billets as their male counterparts. 

20 September – Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Caribbean, built around the headquarters of the 2d Marines, landed at Cap Haitien, Haiti, to end a standoff rebellion between the Haitian military commander and the Haitian president. Operation Uphold Democracy included 1,900 Marines who were part of a 20,000-man Army force. After 12 short days, the task force was relieved by members of the 10th Mountain Division.
20 September – The top civilian and uniformed leadership of the Navy and Marine Corps presented their strategic vision to the Congressional Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces in a series of briefings. General Carl E. Mundy, Jr., Commandant of the Marine Corps, indicated that historically the Corps has adapted to the times and that it is an ideal force for the 21st century -- "A Certain Force for an Uncertain World."
23 September – The 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) deactivated at a ceremony at Dewey Square on Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay. The 1st MEB was originally activated in 1901 at Cavite, Philippine Islands. It had been located at Hawaii since 1953.
29 September – Amid growing concerns over operational tempo and readiness of America's Armed Forces, Congress approved the FY95 Defense Appropriation Bill. While U.S. forces continue to operate around the globe from Haiti to Kuwait, the FY95 defense bill marks the ninth consecutive year of real decline in defense spending. 
30 September – The 3d Light Antiaircraft Missile (LAAM) Battalion deactivated. The battalion originally activated in 1938 using machine guns, graduating to 3-inch antiaircraft guns, then to missile systems. The 3d LAAM had been located at Cherry Point, North Carolina, since 1963. 
___October – Some 20,000 Pacific-based Marines were on alert and ready to deploy to Southwest Asia to battle Iraqi forces then threatening Kuwait. Although the threat of an imminent Iraqi attack on Kuwait receded, 2,500 Marines were deployed to the Southwest Asia to continue to deter Iraq and to train with coalition partners. 
___October – In FY95, the Corps would be getting the Belgian M240 medium machinegun, manufactured by Fabrique Nationale of Columbia, South Carolina, as a one-for-one replacement for the Saco Defense-manufactured M60E3 machinegun held by all ground units. 
13 October – The command of Operation Sea Signal, Guantanamo Naval Base, Cuba, changed hands from Brigadier General Michael J. Williams to Brigadier General Raymond P. Ayres, Jr. The operation was a humanitarian relief effort for 14,000 Haitian migrants seeking shelter from a military dictatorship and 30,000 Cubans stymied by the closing of a door to the U.S. Hundreds of Marines from units at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, provided security for the base. 
17-25 October – Approximately 1,700 Marines of the 37th Marine Expeditionary Unit, III Marine Expeditionary Force from Okinawa, Japan, helped commemorate the 50th anniversary of the battle of Leyte Gulf when they reenacted the landing that returned General Douglas MacArthur to the Philippines during World War II. 
23 October – The 19th Marine Corps Marathon was held in Washington, D.C. Some 14,000 runners participated this the event this year, including 2,900 military personnel. The top male finisher was Mexican Army Sergeant Graciano Gonzalez with a time of 2:22:51. The first place female runner was Susan Molloy of Charlottesville, Virginia, who finished the race in 2:39:34.
10 November – 28 recipients of the country's highest military award, the Medal of Honor, gathered in New Orleans to celebrate the 219th anniversary of the Marine Corps. The 24 Marines and 4 corpsmen were also featured in several commemorative veteran's activities there.
10 November – Marine Reserve Force was redesignated as Marine Forces Reserve during the birthday ball ceremony in New Orleans. The redesignation was a move to keep the reserve force visibility more in line with its Fleet Marine Force command counterparts, such as Marine Forces, Pacific and Atlantic.
25 November- 9 December – Marines from the III Marine Expeditionary Force participated in Exercise Tandem Thrust, a biennial joint military training exercise that stressed rapid response to short-notice crises in the Pacific. The exercise took place on the islands of Guam, Tinian, and Farallon de Medinilla in the South Pacific.
___ December – A detachment of Marines from the II Marine Expeditionary Force wrapped up Exercise Unitas XXXV after completing 10 successful phases of operation with Naval and Marine forces from nine South American navies. The annual joint-combined exercise began in July and was designed to improve the interoperability of U.S. and South American forces. 
___December – The Marine Corps Toys for Tots Program would take on a new community flavor as the Marine Reserve Force implemented changes to the 47-year-old program. The type and level of official Marine Corps participation in the Toys for Tots campaign would be governed by a newly published Department of Defense regulation. The Program would involve a team effort between the Marine Corps and local communities rather than the Corps exclusively. 
6 December – Secretary of the Navy, John H. Dalton, announced that an Arleigh Burke class destroyer DDG 79 would be named in honor of Private First Class Oscar P. Austin, an African-American Marine who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for gallantry during Vietnam. 
8 December – Veterans Affairs Secretary Jesse Brown endorsed a proposal to pay compensation benefits to Persian Gulf War veterans suffering from undiagnosed illnesses for a period of three years if their symptoms manifested within one year of their departure from the Persian Gulf theater.
11 December – Retired Lieutenant General Edward A. Craig died at his El Cajon, California, home at the age of 98. A veteran of World War II and the Korean War, the general was awarded a Navy Cross for heroism on Guam. He retired from the Corps in 1951 after 33 years of service.
15 December – Exercise Eager Mace began as the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit assaulted Camp Monterey, Kuwait. It was a combined amphibious training exercise that demonstrated the capabilities of U.S. forces and the continuing U.S. commitment to the security and stability of the Persian Gulf region.
31 December – The strength of the U.S. Armed Forces was 1,584,232 of whom 174,507 were Marines.

Reference Branch
USMC History Division

Marine Corps University